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We are continually striving to produce and procure the most authentic, detailed and high quality products available. We sell both Original, Authentic and Reproductions Military products from WW1 and WW11.

 Our specialty is reproduction German insignia for WW2 including Heer Army, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine and SS, from enlisted man to officers such as collar tabs, shoulder boards, cuff titles, sleeve eagles and badges. There is such a wide variety to choose from and we keep trying to source more and more.

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This Day in History

ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY
August 31

WWII, 1944

Western Front, France
The US Third Army spearheads an advance toward the Meuse River as the British XXX Corps secures all the main bridges over the Somme near Amiens.

 

ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY
August 30

WWII, 1944

Eastern Front, Slovakia
Elements of the armed forces and partisans in the Nazi puppet state stages an uprising against their German over-lords as the Red Army approaches the country’s eastern border.

The Vietnam War, 1970

South Vietnam, Politics
In elections held throughout South Vietnam, 30 South Vietnamese senators are elected in voting that is characterized by terrorist attacks by Viet Congsappers and charges of fraud. Forty-two civilians are killed.

 

ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY
August 28

WWII, 1944

Eastern Front, Poland
The Polish Home Army continues to fight in Warsaw, but German air attacks and artillery fire are so heavy that the Poles have been forced into the sewers. Soviet leader Stalin has refused to help the freedom fighters, and so the Red Army awaits the outcome on the far side of the Vistula River.

The Third Reich, 1941

Sea War, Atlantic
British forces capture the U-571 which later becomes HMS Graph.

 

ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY
August 27

WWII, 1944

Far East, Burma
The last of the Chindits are evacuated to India. Chidits were a special forces, that were developed to operate deep behind Japanese enemy lines using guerilla warfare and long-range penetration.  They operated in Burma and India in 1943-44.

 

ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY
August 25

WWII, 1944

Italy, Adriatic Sector
The Allied assault on the Gothic Line begins. The German defense line is 200 miles (320 km) long and runs from the valley of the Magra River, south of La Spezia on the west coast, through the Apuan Mountains and the Apennines, ending in the valley of the Foglia River, and reaching the east coast between Pesaro and Cattolica. The assault is conducted by three corps – the British V, Canadian 1, and Polish – of the Eighth Army. The plan is to seize the Gemman-Coriano Ridge complex, thereby unlocking the coastal “gate” and allowing Allied armor to break out to the plains of the Po Valley. However, German resistance is fierce.

Western Front, France
The British XII and XXX Corps cross the Seine River.

The Civil War, 1863

Missouri, Home Front
General Order No. 11 is issued by Union Brigadier General Thomas Ewing, forcing the evacuation of people from four counties in western Missouri.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
August 24

WWII, 1940, Air War, Britain:

The Luftwaffe inflicts
serious losses on the RAF during attacks on its main air bases in southeast
England, straining the resources of Fighter Command to breaking point in a few
days. London has also been Bombed.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
August 21

The Civil War, 1863

Tennessee, Land War
The Battle of Chattanooga. Union forces conduct a bombardment of Chattanooga, causing much damage and diverting attention from major Union crossings of the Tennessee River.

Kansas, Land War
The Battle of Lawrence/Lawrence  Massacre. Quantrill,  attack Lawrence, well known as a hotbed of antislavery sentiment. On Quantrill’s order they burn the town and murder every adult male they encounter, as well as a small garrison of Union soldiers. In all, over 150 people are killed and 200 dwellings destroyed.
Quantrill has been declared an outlaw by the Union but holds a captaincy in the Confederate army. Among those who fight in his band are Frank and Jesse James “Bloody Bill” Anderson. Quantrill and his men have a policy of “no quarter” with regard to Jayhawkers and Union soldiers.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
August 20

The Vietnam War, 1970

South Vietnam, US Armed Forces
A US Department of Defense study reports on the use of illegal drugs by US servicemen during the Vietnam war, and concludes that about three out of every ten US servicemen who are interviewed have either smoked marijuana or taken other illegal drugs during their time in Vietnam.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
August 19

1944, WW11

Western Front, France
Allied units have closed the Falaise pocket two weeks after the Canadian First Army launched Operation Totalize to cut off the encircled German troops. Some 30,000 German soldiers escape from the pocket across the Seine River, but an estimated 50,000 are captured and another 10,000 killed. In the pocket, which has been continually strafed and bombed by Allied aircraft, are hundreds of destroyed and abandoned German vehicles. Canadian, British and Polish forces coming from the north link up with the US First Army driving from Argentan.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
July 30

1944, WWII, Normandy  Operation Bluecoat

An attack by the British Second Army from 30 July – 7 August meant to secure the key road of Vire and the high ground of Mont Pincon. 

The attack was successful in diverting the German 2nd Panzer Division forces away from the American offensive in Brittany. made to support the American exploitation of their break-out on the western flank of the Normandy beachhead and tactically, to exploit the German depletion of the defenses of what had been a quiet area, by withdrawing the Successful British diversion of forces away from the US offensive in Brittany.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
July 29

1942, WWII, Battle of the Kokoda: 

The Kokoda Track campaign consisted of a series of battles between the Japanese and the Allies mostly Australian.  

After the Japanese landed near Gona, New Guinea they attempted to advance the Owen Stanley Mountains to seize Port Moresby, forcing the Australians back and isolating them from the American forces. . Port Moresby was vital to the defense of Australia, launched from Port Moresby. This campaign became one of the most desperate and bloody battles of the whole war. 

The Australian defense began at Kokoda, about half way along the mountain trail. In the early morning of 29th July the Australian force of 80 hastily assembled men sought to beat off the Japanese invasion force of over 400. With their commander mortally wounded, shot through the head, and the Japanese outflanking them in the jungle, they were forced to withdraw.  The Australians attempted to recapture Kokoda on 8 August without success which resulted in heavy casualties on both sides.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
May 6

The Vietnam War, 1969

South Vietnam, US Armed Forces
III Marine Amphibious Force, composed of the 1st and 3rd Marine Divisions, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, Force logistics Command, and the US Army’s XXIV Corps, Americal Division, the 101st Airborne Division (Airmobile), and the 1st Brigade, 5th Infantry Division (Mechanized), begins its fifth year in Vietnam.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
May 4

The Civil War, 1863

Virginia, Land War
The Battle of Chancellorsville. The Union troops are facing total defeat. However, at Fredericksburg yesterday the remaining Union troops under Sedgwick attacked and drove away Early’s troops. Sedgwick now advances west to come to Hooker’s aid. With Hooker in retreat, Lee returns to attack Sedgwick. At Salem Church the Confederates half the Union Advance. Hooker withdrew across the river on the night of May  5. His defeat by an army half his size has cost more than 17,000 casualties. Lee’s losses are 12,800, including the irreplaceable Jackson, who dies a few days later.


ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
May 3

The Vietnam War, 1969

US Defense Secretary Melvin Laird says that the United States can begin troops withdrawals if any one of the following three basic conditions are met by Hanoi: (1) Agreement of mutual withdrawals; (2) sufficient improvements of the South Vietnamese Armed Forces; (3) A substantial reduction of VC/NVA activity in South Vietnam.

 WWII, 1944

Politics, Japan
Admiral Soemu Toyoda is appointed commander-in-chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet. He replaces Admiral Mineichi Koga, who has been killed in a plane crash on March 31.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
May 2

The Civil War, 1863

Virginia, Land War
The Battle of Chancellorsville. Lee now has the initiative. In one of the war’s boldest moves he divides his army once again. He sends Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson and 28,000 men on a 12-mile (19km) march to strike Hooker’s right flank, while his remaining troops face three Union corps. The march takes all day, but at 18:00 hours Jackson attacks the Union XI Corps, which is routed. Only nightfall saves Hooker’s army. During the evening Jackson is shot by his own men who mistake his party for Union Cavalry.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
May 1

The Civil War, 1863

Virginia, Land War
The Battle of Chancellorsville. Joseph Hooker, commander of the Army of the Potomac, devised a new plan as the Army of the Potomac and the Army of Northern Virginia faced one another across the Rappahannock River as Fredericksburg. Instead of attempting a frontal attack on the Confederate positions overlooking Fredericksburg. Hookers divided his army and took half of it – three corps totally 75,000 men – to cross the river at fords upstream and come around in a wide sweep to hit Lee from behind. John Sedgwick stayed at Fredericksburg with 40,000 men to pin the Confederates. By April 30 the Union troops had crossed the river and were in a dense area of woodland called the Wilderness. The center of their position was a crossroads at Chancellorsville, Virginia. Hooker’s plan has worked smoothly so far, but now things started to go wrong. Lee realized that Hooker was trying a flanking march. On April 29 he sent two brigades toward Chancellorsville to discover the size of the threat. Once they confirmed the Union army was at Chancellorsville, he went on the attack.


Like Hooker, Lee divided his forces, leaving 10,000 men under Jubal A. Early to hold Fredericksburg and marching his remaining 50,000 men west to meet Hooker. Hooker is taken by surprise today when the Confederates start an attack on his lead divisions at noon. The Union commander begins to lose his nerve. In midafternoon he halts the advance and orders his forces back to Chancellorsville to take up defensive positions.

Mississippi, Land War
The Battle of Port Gibson/Thompson’s Hill. Having crossed the Mississippi, Grant’s forces moving against Vicksburg defeat a Confederate attempt to hold the river line at Port Gibson.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
April 17

WWII, 1942

Air War, Germany
The RAF launch one of the war’s most hazardous bomber raids, attacking a diesel engine factory in Augsburg.  Seven of the 12 Lancaster bombers assigned to the daylight attack are lost and the other five sustain damage.

The Vietnam War, 1969

South Vietnam, US Armed Forces
Us Marine firepower increases with the introduction of the first 175mm guns, scheduled to replace the 155mm guns, of the US Army’s 1st, 3rd, and 5th 155mm Gun Batteries.

The Civil War, 1863

Mississippi, Land War
Union Colonel Benjamin H. Grierson leads the 2nd Iowa, 6th Illinois, and 7th Illinois Cavalry, and several artillery batteries, out of La Grange, Tennessee south into Mississippi. This raid is part of General Ulysses S. Grant’s plan for the cavalry raiders to divert the attention of Confederate forces protecting Vicksburg so that he can move his army south of the vital river city. If the Cavalry does its job, Grant will be able to cross the Mississippi River and attack Vicksburg. Grierson’s men soon encounter Southern militia. Although the confederate cavalry try to intercept the Union raiders, Grierson manages to deceive and confuse them repeatedly. On three occasions he ignores conventional military tactics and divides his 1,700-man force, even though he is deep in enemy territory.
Reports of Grierson’s elusive movements tricks General John C. Pemberton, commander of Confederate forces at Vicksburg, into moving troops away from the Mississippi River to trap the Union raiders. At one time 20,000 Confederate troops are committed to stopping Grierson – men who were therefore unable to oppose Grant’s river crossing. Grierson’s men also succeed in doing much damage to bridges and railroads behind Vicksburg. They tear the only rail link between the eastern and western parts of the Confederacy.
Southern troops never caught Grierson’s men. After ravaging 600 miles (960km) of Confederate territory, Grierson once more did the unexpected: He escaped back behind Union lines by riding south to Union-held baton Rouge, Louisiana, rather than north.

Louisiana, Land War
The Battle of Vermillion Bayou. Confederate forces retreating from defeats at fort Bisland and Irish Bend are defeated in an artillery duel action on the Vermillion Bayou, and retreat toward Opelousas.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
April 15

The Vietnam War, 1969

South Vietnam, US Armed forces
Major-General William K. Jones replaces Major-General Raymond G. Davis as commanding General, 3rd Marine Division.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
April 14

The Civil War, 1863

Louisiana, Land War
The Battle of Irish Bend/Nerson’s Woods/Franklin. Union forces, attempting to cut off Confederate retreat from Fort Bisland, defeat Rebel troops at Nerson’s Woods, about 1.5 miles (2.2 km) from Franklin.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
April 13

The Civil War, April 13-15, 1863

Virginia, Land/Naval War
The Battle of Suffolk/Norfleet House Battery. An inconclusive Confederate siege of Suffolk, Virginia, costs a total of 1,160 casualties.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
April 12

he Civil War, April 12-13, 1863

Louisiana, Land War
The Battle of Fort Bisland/Bethel Place. The Confederate strongpoint at Fort Bisland falls to a Union expedition up Bayou Teche in western Louisiana. The expedition’s ultimate objective is Alexandria, which is now vulnerable.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
April 11

The Civil War, 1863

Alabama, Land War
Union Colonel Abel Streight raids into Alabama and Georgia in an attempt to cut the Western and Atlantic Railroad. He fights a rearguard action at Day’s Gaps, Cullman County, against the Confederates led by Nathan B. Forrest. Streight’s entire command of 1,500 men will be captured on May 3

The Civil War, April 11-May 4, 1863

The Battle of Suffolk/Fort Huger/Hill’s Point. A union force takes Fort Huger on the Nansemond River but is repulsed when moving against fort Fix.

The Vietnam War, April 11-12, 1969

South Vietnam, Ground War
US Soldiers in IV Corps Tactical Zone engage in Viet Cong Battalion in Kien Tuong Province, resulting in 97 enemy dead.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
April 10

WWII, April 10-23, 1942

Far East, Burma
Japan begins an offensive after reinforcements arrive. Lieutenant General William Slim fails to prevent the Japanese advancing on the oil fields at Yenangyaung in the south and sets large amounts of crude oil ablaze. The Chinese Sixty-fifth Army enters Burma to bolster the faltering defense against the Japanese. Around the central towns to Loikaw and Taunggyi, the Japanese 56th Division overwhelms the Chinese Sixth Army by the 23rd.

The Civil War, 1863

Tennessee, Land War
The Battle of Franklin. A Reconnaissance by Confederate Cavalry of Major General Earl Van Dorn turns into a defeat and withdrawal after an major engagement around Franklin

The Vietnam War, 1969

South Vietnam, US Armed Forces
Four AH-1G Cobra gunships arrive in Da Nang to begin air operations with Marine observation squadron 2.

South Vietnam, Ground War
Elements of ARVN units in IV Corps Tactical Zone engage a company sized force of Viet Cong in Chuong Thien Province. They kill 80 enemy soldiers.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILIARY HISTORY
February 13

WWII, 1945, February 13-14

Air War, Germany.
The RAF Mounts a night raid on Dresden. The 805 bombers inflict massive damage on the city’s old town and inner suburbs. The bombing triggers the worst firestorm of the war, in which at least 50,000 people are killed. The raid is controversial, as the city has negligible strategic value, is virtually undefended, and is crammed with refugees. The next morning, the city is bombed again by 400 aircraft of the US 8th Army Air Force.

The Vietnam War, 1968

South Vietnam, Ground War
The
Forward command elements and major combat units of the elite 101st Airborne Division arrive in I Corps Tactical Zone.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
February 12

WWII North Africa

Rommel takes command in North Africa .  Hitler had no particular strategic interest in North Africa but he could not see Mussolini totally humiliated. Erwin Rommel had demonstrated his zeal for aggressive independent leadership during the invasion of France and was regarded as the ideal man to lead the relatively small Panzer force that would become known as the Afrika Corps.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
February 11

WWII, 1942

Sea War, English Channel.
The start of the “Channel Dash”. The Gneisenau, Scharnhorst and Prinz Eugen sail through the English channel from Brest in France to Germany and Norway. This is a major embarrassment for the royal Navy and Royal Air Force (RAF), and a great propaganda victory for the Kreigsmarine.

WWII, 1945

Eastern Front, Hungary
The Trapped Axis Garrison in Budapest attempts to break through the Soviet lines. However, of the nearly 30,000 Germans and Hungarians, fewer than 700 are able to escape.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
February 10

Preparations for D-Day

Logistics, Landing Craft
In a move to find SHEAF (Supreme Headquarters Expeditionary Allied Force)  all the landing craft it has requested, the Combined Chiefs of Staff signal the headquarters, Mediterranean, Theatre of Operations, that all LST’s (Landing Ship, Tanks) no longer required in theatre are to be returned to Great Britain. To finalize landing craft numbers, General Marshall has sent two of his senior planners to London.

 

ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY
February 9

The Vietnam War, 1968

South Vietnam, Ground War
Units of III Marine Amphibious Force succeed in beating back the 2nd North Vietnamese Army division’s offensive at Da Nang, Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, Forward, (MACVF) under General Creighton W. Abrams, General Westmoreland’s Deputy Commander and soon-to-be successor, is established in I Corps Tactical Zone in order for MACV to better assess and react to the enemy’s offensive operations.

World War II, 1945

Eastern Front, Poland
The Soviet 2nd Belorussian Front launches an offensive in the region of Grudziadz and Sepolno but runs into determined resistance from the German Second Army. Soviet Progress is very slow.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
February 8

WWII, 1945, February 8-24

Eastern Front, Germany
Marshal Ivan Konev’s 1st Ukrainian Front begins its offensive to disrupt German plans and establish an impregnable defense line along the southern Oder. By the 24th his forces have advanced 75 miles (120 km) and seized Lower Silesia, in addition to freeing 91, 300 Soviet citizens and 22,500 other foreigners from German imprisonment.

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
February 7

 The Vietnam War, 1968

South Vietnam, Ground War
NVA units overrun the US Army’s Special Forces base at Lang Vei, west of the Marine base at Khe Sanh. Meanwhile, elements of the 3rd Marines, 5th Marines, and the US Army’s Americal Division engage the 2nd North Vietnamese Division in fighting around Da Nag, which Marines have given the ominous nickname “the rocket belt” due to heavy shelling of North Vietnamese artillery units.

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
February 6

WW11 Afrika, 1943

Lt. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, command to date was limited to the U.S. forces in North Africa is now named the commander of all Allied armies in the African theater of operations

WW11 Europe, 1943

When a Nazi officer was shot and wounded in the Netherlands by 00s student the occupying German forces arrested 600 students.  These students were deported to the Herzongenbush Concentration Camp.

Just a few days later another 1200 were arrested and deported.

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
February 5

WWII, 1945

Western Front, France
The German bridgehead on the west bank of the Rhine, south Strasbourg around to town of Colmar – the Colmar Pocket – is split by units of the French First Army attacking from the south and elements of the US Seventh Army advancing from the north. The elimination of the pocket is essential to the crossing of the Rhine.

The Vietnam War, 1968

South Vietnam, Ground War
US Marines from the 26th Marines at the Khe Sanh Marine Corps Fire Base repel a battalion-sized attack and kill a reported 109 NVA soldiers, with 7 Marines killed and 15 wounded.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
February 4

WW11, 1942

North Africa, Libya
Rommel again nears Tobruk, though his lines of communications are stretched.

WWII, 1945, February 4-11

Politics, Allies
Marshal Joseph Stalin, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill meet at the Yalta Conference in the Crimea to discuss postwar Europe. The “Big Three” decide that Germany will be divided into four zones, administered by Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union. An allied Control Commission will be set up in Berlin, and Austria will also be divided into four zones. The capital, Vienna, will be in the Soviet zone and will also have a four-power administration. The Soviet Union will declare war on Japan two months after the war in Europe has ended, while changes to Poland’s borders will allow the Soviet Union to annex former Polish areas.

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
February 3

WWII 1945,  February 3-March 3

Pacific, Philippines
The US XIV Corps begins its attack against Manila, which is defended by 17,000 Japanese troops under Rear Admiral Sanji Iwabucki. The garrison, after destroying the city (the “Rape of Manila”), is wiped out. US casualties total 1000 dead and 5500 wounded; 100,000 Filipino citizens are killed.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
February 1

Vietnam War, 1968

South Vietnam, Ground War
The 1st Brigade, 1st Air Cavalry Division (Airmobile), together with ARVN forces successfully defend the city of Quang Tri. The enemy reportedly suffers 900 confirmed casualties and 100 captured. Also, in what will be some of the heaviest fighting of the Vietnam War, units of the 1st and 5th Marines begin combat operation within the ancient Imperial capital, Hue City, in order to drive out the NVA.

WWII, 1945

Eastern Front, East Prussia
The trapped German Fourth Army attempts to reach German-held Elbing but is halted by a Soviet counterattack.

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 31

Vietnam War, 1967 South Vietnam
Ground War Operation Prairie I ends. At its height, the operation has involves six US Marine infantry battalions, accounting for the largest number of enemy casual...ties in a single Marine operation to date: 1397 North Vietnamese and Viet Cong soldiers killed and 27 captured. The Marine casualties include 239 killed and 1214 wounded in action.

WWII, 1945 January 31-February 21
Far East, Burma The British 36th Division effects a crossing of the Shweli River at Myitson following a savage battle against the Japanese. The division’s success threatens the Japanese northern approaches to the Mandalay Plain.
 
ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 30

WWII, 1945 Eastern Front, Germany
The left wing of the 1st Ukrainian Front has reached the Oder River and some of its units have set up bridgeheads on the west bank. This ends one of the greatest ...strategic operations of the whole war. The Red Army has advanced 355 miles (568 km), liberated all of Poland and a large part of Czechoslovakia, reached the Oder on a broad front, and is only 100 miles (160 km) from Berlin. In its offensive, it has inflicted losses of 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured on the Germans, and captured 1300 aircraft, 1400 tanks, and over 14,000 guns of all calibers.
 
ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 29
WWII, 1945 Pacific, Philippines
 
Major General Charles Hall’s US XI Corps lands unopposed on the west coast of Luzon just to the north of the Bataan Peninsula....
Civil War, 1863 Idaho, Indian Wars The Battle of Bear River/Massacre at Bao Ogoi. Union retaliation against the Shoshoni Tribe kills over 380 Native Americans at their Boa Ogoi Camp.
 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 28

WWII, 1945

Western Front, Ardennes
The last vestiges of the German “bulge” in the Ardennes are wiped out. The total cost of the Germans in manpower for their Ardennes offensive had been 100,000 killed, wounded, and captured. The Americans had lost 81,000 killed, wounded, or captured, and the British 1400. Both sides had lost heavily in hardware – up to 800 tanks on each side. The Germans also lost around 1000 aircraft. Whereas  the Americans can make good their losses in just a few weeks, for the Germans the military losses are irreplaceable.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 27

WWII, 1945

Eastern Front, Poland
The Red Army liberates the Nazi death camp at Auschwitz. The SS has evacuated the camp nine days previously, taking 20,000 weak inmates with them. Those left number a few hundred disease-ridden inmates in the camps hospital block

Far East, Burma
Units of the Allied Y Force, pushing across the Shweli River at wanting, reopen the Burma Road supply route into china.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY 
January 26

Vietnam War, 1967

South Vietnam, Fortifications.

United States Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), headquarters completes its Practice Nine Requirements Plan for constructing a strong point obstacle system (SPOS) south of Demilitarized zone. This is the beginning of the McNamara Line.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 23

WWII, 1945

Eastern Front, East Prussia
The Soviet 2nd Belorussian Front cuts all road and rail crossings across the Vistula River, Isolating German units on the east bank.

Eastern Front, Poland
The Soviet Second Guards Tank Army, part of the 1st Belorussian Front, storms the fortified town of Bromberg, an important strongpoint in the German Poznan line.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 22

WWII, 1944

German Defences, Europe

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 21

WWII,  1942

North Africa, Libya
Rommel, having retreated, allowed the British Eighth Army into Libya again. Two Australian divisions are moved from Egypt to the Pacific theatre of war to hold Japanese advances, while Rommel receives reinforcements from Germany. Rommel then attacks and smashes the British armour. Benghazi falls by the 29th.

WWII, 1945

Far East, Burma
The Island of Ramree is invaded by the British 71st Brigade. Japanese resistance is virtually non-existent, although it stiffens as Allied troops push farther inland. The island is not cleared until the middle of February, by which time General William Slim has an invaluable base for future long-range operations against Rangoon.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 20

Civil War, 1863, January 20-22

Virginia, Land War
The Union Army of the Potomac begins its march to quickly cross the Rappahannock River above Lee’s left and attack that flank of the Confederate position for an attempt at a winter offensive.  However, it begins to rain relentlessly, turning the whole area into a sea of mud. The “Mug March” ends with Burnside ordering his army to return to their camps across the river from Fredericksburg.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 19

WWII, 1945

Eastern Front, Poland
Following heavy fighting, units of the 1st Ukrainian Front liberate Cracow, the former capital of Poland. The German Third and Fourth Panzer Armies are not isolated in East Prussia, and the German front is falling apart in the face of immense pressure.

 

ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY
January 18

WWII, 1945, January 18-27

Eastern Front, Hungary
The German IV SS Panzer Corps launches an offensive to relieve Budapest. In the face of soviet resistance, it reaches the Vali River on the 22nd, only 15 miles (24 km) southwest of the city. However the momentum of the attack had been halted by the 25th, and two days later the Red Army counterattacks with 12 rifle divisions and strong armored support, effectively ending the German Budapest relief operation.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 16

WWII, 1945

Far East, Burma
In the north of the country, General Daniel Sultan’s Chinese New First Army occupies Namhkan. The last Japanese positions threatening the Burma Road have been eradicated.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 15

WWII, 1945

Western Front, Germany
After the containment of the German Ardennes offensive, the Allies launch a large counterattack against the Germans.  In the north, Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery’s British 21st Army Group presses into the Roermond area, while farther south General Omar Bradley’s US 12th Army Group approaches the upper Roer River.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 14

WW II, 1945

Far East, Burma
The 19th Division, part of Lieutenant General William Slim’s British Fourteenth Army, crosses the Irrawaddy River at Kyaukmyaung but is then violently attacked by Japanese troops holding the line of the waterway. Forced back by hordes of infantry with fixed bayonets, the division manages to hold the bridgehead in the face of the fierce onslaught.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 13

D-Day, 1944

German Defences, France
General Jodl continues his inspection of coastal defences in France. He finds preparations in Cherbourg – one of the largest ports on the Atlantic coast and an obvious Allied invasion objective – to be in a state of chaos. As a result of Jodl’s findings, Cherbourg and other major ports on the coast are fortified on the landward side and their port facilities wired for demolition.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 12

WWII, 1945

Eastern Font, Poland
The Red Army begins its Vistula-Oder offensive. Soviet forces total over two million men: Marshal Georgi Zhukov’s 1st Belorussian Front, Marshal Ivan Knoev’s 1st Ukrainian front, and General Ivan Petrov’s 4th Ukrainian Front. In addition, Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky’s 2nd Belorussian Front and General Ivan Chernyakhovsky’s  3rd Belorussian front are providing tactical and strategic cooperation. The soviets make excellent progress, and by the 17th, Zhukov’s Second Guards Tank Army has reached Sochaczew. To the north, the 1st Baltic, 2nd Belorussian, and 3rd Belorussian  Fronts launch an offensive into East Prussia on the 13th

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 11

D-Day, 1944

Preparations for D-Day. 

Air Campaign, Factory Bombing
As Part of the strategy to seriously reduce the numbers of German fighter aircraft available to meet the invasion, bombers of the US Eighth Army Air Force attack three fighter production plants in central Germany.

The headquarters units of the US 4th Armored Division arrive in Great Britain by ship from Boston. This is the first American armoured division to arrive in Great Britain, and will be organized into General Omar C. Bradley’s US First Army. The division will not land in France until July.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 10

Stalingrad, 1943

Operation Koltso (Operation Ring) was the last part of the Battle of Stalingrad. It resulted in the capitulation of the remaining German forces encircled in the city.After a 55-minute bombardment by thousands of guns and rocket-launchers, and employing seven armies, the Red Army begins Operation Ring, the final annihilation of the tattered remnants of 6.Armee defending themselves desperately against all odds in the ruins of Stalingrad.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 9

Civil War, 1863
 
Battle of Arkansas Post Gen. John McClernand and Adm. David D. Porter led a 30,000 man army and gunboats up the Arkansas River to confront Gen. T.J. Churchill’s 5,000 Confederates a...t Arkansas Post. Arkansas Post was a cause of  troubles to the Union shipping on the Mississippi River.  Gunboats started bombarded Fort Hindman Jan 10 with the army joining in and culminating Jan 11 in the surrender of the Confederates.  The union losses are 1047.
 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 8

Vietnam War, 1967

The US Army launches Operation Cedar Falls, which has been planned with the objective of destroying the Viet Cong’s headquarters as well as interdicting the movement of enemy forces into the major war zones in III Corps Tactical Zone, and defeating Viet Cong units encamped there.
Like Operation Attleboro preceding it, Cedar Falls tapped the manpower and resources of nearly every US Army unit in the corps area. A serious of preliminary manoeuvres brought army units into position, while several air assaults sealed off the area known as the Iron Triangle exploiting the natural barriers of the rivers that formed two of its boundaries. Then American units began a series of sweeps to push the enemy towards the blocking forces. At the village of Ben Suc, long under the sway of the Viet Cong, 60 helicopters descended into seven landing zones in less than a minute. Ben Suc was surrounded and its entire population evacuated, before the village and tunnel complex were destroyed. But the Viet Cong had fled before the heliborne assault. As Cedar Falls progressed throughout January and into February, US troops destroyed hundreds of enemy fortifications, captured large quantities of supplies and food, and evacuated the hamlets. But contact with the enemy was fleeting. Most of the Viet Cong, including the high-level cadre of the regional command, had escaped by infiltrating through Allied lines.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 7

WWII, 1945

Eastern Font, Hungary
In an attempt to relieve the garrison in the capital German forces capture Esztergom, 29 miles northwest of Budapest, a Nazi National Redoubt.  Two of the Hungarian forced labor units, whose members were mainly Esztergom Jews, were executed en masse near Ágfalva, on the Austrian border in January, 1945.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 6

Vietnam War, Naval War,  1967

The US Marine’s Special Landing Force (Battalion Landing Team, 1st Battalion, 9th Marines, 3rd Marine Division), along with some elements of the 3rd and 4th Marine Battalions, launches Deckhouse V from the USS Iwo Jima (LPH-2), which assaults an area of suspected Viet Cong concentrations along the coast between the Co Chien and Ham Luong reaches of the Mekong Delta. The Marines manage to kill only 21 Viet Cong, destroy two small-arms workshops and capture 44 weapons and 42.6 tonnes (42 tons) of rice. Seven US Marines are killed in action, while one South Vietnamese Marine dies in a combat-related accident.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 5

World War II, 1945

Air War, Belgium/Holland
The Luftwaffe launches Operation Bodenplatte in support of the Ardennes offensive with 1035 fighters and bombers attacking Allied airfields in Belgium and southern Holland. The Germans destroy 156 Allied aircraft but lose 227 of their own, losses the Luftwaffe cannot make good. It is the last major German air attack.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 4

WW11 II, 1945, January 4-6

Pacific, Philippines
Prior to the landings on Luzon, the Japanese launch a series of Kamikaze attacks on ships of the US 7th Fleet. Over 1000 Americans and Australians are killed in the suicide attacks, a minesweeper is sunk, and more than 30 other vessels are damaged.

WW II, 1945

Far East, Burma
Units of General William Slim’s British Fourteenth Army make an unopposed landing on the island of Akyab, securing the port and the airfield.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 3

Vietnam War, 1967

South Vietnam, Ground War
Republic of Korea troops begin operation Maeng Ho 8, a 60-day search and destroy operation in Phu Yen and Binh Dinh Provinces in II Corps Tactical Zone. Korean troops kill 211 Viet Cong Soldiers and capture 403

WWII, 1945, January 3-4

Pacific, Ryukyus
The US 3rd Fleet attacks Japanese targets on Formosa, destroying 100 enemy aircraft.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 2

WWII 1945

Technology, United States
An American Sikorsky helicopter is used in convoy escort duties for the first time.

 WWII  1944

Commanders, Allies
General Montgomery arrives in London to take up his post as commander 21st Army Group. Admiral Ramsay, who has been working on naval invasion plans for the past five months, airs a rather pessimistic view to Sir Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, that Monty’s arrival has come “two months too late”.

General Eisenhower arrives in Washington, DC, from North Africa, for a short visit to his family before he flies to London to take up his post as Supreme Commander. While in Washington, “Ike” will hold several meetings with General Marshall and President Roosevelt. Of Particular concern to Marshall is the British attitude to operation Anvil, the proposed invasion of southern France, earmarked to coincide with Operation Overlord. Marshall is worried that the British seem more concerned with keeping forces in Italy than using them is an assault on France’s Mediterranean coast.

 

THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
January 1

The Vietnam War, 1967


Two brigades of the US Army’s 2th Infantry Division, with contingents of the 25th Infantry Division attached, launch Operation Sam Houston in Pleiku and Kontum Provinces, aimed at the destruction of the regiments of the North Vietnamese 1st Division now operating in the two provinces from bases inside Cambodia. In a total of 95 days of sustained combat operations, the NVA loses 733 killed in action.
As 1967 began, the 3rd Marine Division, part of III Marine Amphibious Force (III MAF), was fighting two wars: a convention one along the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), where it confronted the regular North Vietnamese forces, and a counter guerrilla war throughout the rest of Quant Tri and Thua Thien Provinces. Although committed to both campaigns, the threat posed by NVA forces forced the Marines to concentrate on the larger, conventional war along the DMZ. At that point, US marine strength in I Corps Tactical Zone (ICTZ) stood at a total 65, 789 officers and men.

Civil War, 1863

Texas, Land War
The Battle of Galveston. Galveston, garrisoned by three companies of the Union 42nd Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment under the command of Colonel Isaac S. Burrell, is recaptured by a combined land/sea assault by the Confederates. But the Union blockade remains in place.

World War II, 1945

Eastern Front, Czechoslovakia
The Soviet 2nd and 4rd Ukrainian Fronts begin an offensive against the German Army Group Center in Czechoslovakia. The German-held area contains last foreign industrial resources under the control of the Third Reich. The soviet fronts between them have 853,000 men, 9986 guns, 590 tanks, and 1400 combat aircraft. German forces total 550,000 men, 5000 guns, and 700 combat aircraft. Despite German fortification and resistance, the Red Army makes good progress.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 31

The Civil War, 1862

Tennessee, Land War
The Battle of Parker’s Cross Roads. A Union attempt to cut off Nathan Forrest’s men from retreating across the Tennessee River fails, despite having caught Forrest in a pincer attack.

Tennessee, Land War
The Battle of Murfreesboro/Stones River. From December 31 to January 2, 1962/63 Rosecrans ordered his Union Army of Cumberland out of its winter quarters near Nashville to advance south to Murfreesboro, where Braxton Bragg’s Confederate Army of Tennessee was assembled. By December 30 the two armies faced each other near Stones River. Each general planned to attack the other’s right flank, hoping a successful assault would lead to the rout of the opposing army. The Confederate struck at dawn the next day, and enjoyed considerable success as seven brigades fell on two Union brigades guarding Rosecrans’ flank. But the spirited attack did not lead to a rout; instead, the Union army conducted a fighting retreat.

Throughout today the Army of Tennessee repeatedly assaulted the Union forces, while Rosecrans and his staff desperately try to hold their ground. By the time darkness falls, the Confederates have succeeded in driving their opponents back more than 2 miles (3.2km). Briggs wires to Rickmond that the Union army is in retreat. But to Braggs surprise the dawn’s light reveals Rosecrans’ army waiting to renew the fight. Little happened on New Year’s Day, but fighting resumed on January 2, when Bragg ordered a Frontal assault on an isolated Union position. An initial success turned into the repulse of the Confederate. Bragg ordered a retreat on the morning of January 3, although his decision was swayed by the false impression that the Union army had been reinforced.

The battle was among the hardest fought of the Civil War. Of Bragg’s 35,000 troops, 27 percent were killed or wounded. The Union forces lost 23 percent of their 41,400 men. The battle was strategic victory for the Union forces, which secured control of Kentucky while increasing their hold on Tennessee. It also boosted morale after the disaster at Fredericksburg. Lincoln telegraphed his battered his battered but unyielding troops a heartfelt “God bless You.”

The Vietnam War, 1966

South Vietnam, US Ground Forces
The total strength of III Marine Amphibious Forces in I Corps Tactical Zone now stands at 65,789 US Marines, sailors, soldiers and ARVN, as well as other Free World Forces.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 30

Reconnaissance, France, 1943
Steps are already being taken by the Allies to identify and chart potential landing beaches in Normandy. This secret work is undertaken by the Combined Operations Pilotage Parties (COPP), based in Portsmouth. These units include Royal Navy and British Army personnel who specialize in covert reconnaissance. They operate from canoes or miniature submarines and have already worked successfully on the coasts of Sicily and mainland Italy.

Two of the COPP’s swimmers, Major Scott Bowden and Sergeant Ogden Smith, are on a mission to survey an area of beach opposite the village of La Riviere. They are dropped by launch to swim 365m (400 yds) to shore. Once there, they use augers to take samples of beach sand to bring back. This is vital work. Planners must be told whether potential landing beaches are stable enough to hold the weight of vehicles and armour.

German Defences, France, 1943
There are proposed changes to the German chain of command in France. So far Rommel’s task here has been as advisor to Hitler and OKW regarding defence preparations; he has no control over field units within OB West. Both von Rundstedt and Rommel realize that this situation is a waste of Rommel’s experience, so von Rundstedt recommends to Hitler that a new army group be established in northern France and the Netherlands, under OB West control but commanded by Rommel – in effect, putting Rommel in charge of defence preparations.

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 29

London, 1940

St. Paul’s Cathedral, London,  safe from the heaviest  night of  air raid bombing in the city.  Over 1500 fires were started in London after serious incendiary bombs were dropped which affected all parts of the city. Though many building surrounding the Cathedral were rubble St. Paul’s was saved.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 27

D-Day, 1943

Commanders, Allies
Montgomery flies to Algiers to meet Eisenhower. It is their first discussion about the organization of the Allied armies for Overlord and Montgomery will establish a forward tactical 21st Army Group HQ in France to control the battle. In effect, he will be Overlord’s land forces commander until there are sufficient US Army forces in France to create their own army groups.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 26

The Civil War, 1862

Mississippi, Land War
The Battle of Chickasaw Bayou/Walnut Hills. The Union assault towards Vicksburg is stopped and suffers 1,776 casualties when it turns into Confederate defenses in the Walnut Hills.

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 24

D-Day, 1943

Commanders, Allies.
British General Bernard L. Montgomery, of the Eighth Army in Italy, is appointed commander of the 21st Army Group. Its headquarters (HQ), based in Great Britain, will be charged with planning and executing the amphibious assault and initial stages of the land battle in France. General Montgomery will report directly to General Eisenhower, who will retain overall command of all the Allied forces in Europe.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 23

Italy, 1943

Benito Mussolini had his son-in-law, the politician Galeazzo Ciano, executed  for treason outside the gates of Verona along with four other fascists who had abandoned Mussolini.  In his last words he stated:  “There was no reason whatever, in my opinion, for us to be bound in life and death to the destiny of Nazi Germany.”

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 22

WW11 Italy, 1943

Canadians confront Fallschirmjager in Ortona

The Canadian 1st Infantry Division under Major General Chris Vokes assault  the German Fallschirmjäger  1st Parachute Division under Generalleutnant Richard Heidrich. The culmination of the fighting at the Adriatic front in Italy was dubbed “Little Stalingrad” due to its close-quarters combat.   Canadians, forced to advance one house at a time through only one centre due to German tactics of filing narrow streets with rubble, had only advanced 600 yards after two days.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 20

WW11 Pacific, 1942

Japanese aircraft dropped the first bomb on Calcutta. hitting docks, shipping and airfields in the area  Later the city and its port were bombed several times by the Japanese with the last on 24 December 1944.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 19

German Defences, France, 1943
In Paris, Rommel meets with Field Marshal  Gerd von Rundstedy, the commander of Oberbefehlshaber West (OB West), which controls the German Army in France and the Low Countries. Although Rommel has no role within the OB West chain of command, his recommendations for the defence of France go direct to Hitler, so von Rundstedt must take them into consideration.

The Field Marshals agree that the Pas de Calais in the most likely invasion point, and that is unlikely that the Atlantic wall will be strong enough to hold the Allies on the beaches. A counterattack by armoured divisions will be needed, but the two men disagree on how to organize it. Von Rundstedt wants to counterattack inland, away from any navy bombardment, using a large armoured reserve. Rommel knows that such a reserve will come under concentrated Allied air attack. He wants a mobile reserve to hit the Allies near the beachhead. In order to hold the Allies long enough to give the reserve time to move in, coastal defences will have to be improved rapidly.

Civil War, 1862

Tennessee, Land War
The Battle of Jackson. General Nathan Bedford Forrest attacks Union railroad supply lines near Jackson.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 18

The Third Reich, 1940

Eastern Front, Soviet Union
Directive No 21 calling for an invasion on or about May 15, 1941, is issued on December 18, 1940.

Operation Barbarossa (named after a medieval German emperor nicknamed “Redbeard”) mapped out a lightning attack by three million troops organized in 186 divisions equipped with 2500 tanks, 28,800 aircraft and 6000 artillery pieces. The assault would be three-pronged. Army Group North under Field Marshal von Leeb would strike through the Baltic States to Leningrad where it would link up with Finnish forces allied with Hitler. Army Group Centre under Field Marshal von Bock, including Panzer Groups under Generals Guderian and Hoth, would strike through central Poland and Belorussia all the way to Moscow itself. Army Group South under Field Marshal von Rundstedt, including two Romanian Armies and one Hungarian Corps, would smash into the Ukraine and beyond into the Crimea and Caucasus to conquer the USSR’s vast agriculture lands and it’s richest oilfields.

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 17

The Civil War, 1862

North Carolina, Land War
The Battle of Goldsborough Bridge. Brigadier General John G. Foster’s Goldsborough expedition reaches its destination, destroying railroad track and the Goldsborough bridge.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 16

WW11 Naval War, 1939

Captain Langsdorf of the Admiral Graf Spee, a German Heavy Cruiser,  believed he was trapped in Montevideo Harbour,  Uruguay by a strong Royal Naval task force after it had been forced into Montevideo with the British success of the Battle of River Plate.  The Battle was the first major naval action of WW11.

Langsdorf telegraphs Germany:   ‘If a break-through would result in certain destruction of Graf Spee, without opportunity of damaging enemy, request decision on whether the ship should be scuttled in spite of insufficient depth in the estuary of the La Plata, or whether internment is to be preferred’.

The Civil War, 1862

North Carolina, Land War
The Battle of White Hall/Whitehall/White Hall Ferry. Federal troops of the Goldsborough expedition fix Confederate forces on the Neuse River while the mass Union troops continue their march.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 15
Asia, 1943

Lord Louis Mountbatten was  appointed Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia.  He was in charge of land forces in Burma, Malaya, Sumatra, India and Ceylong.  Mountbatten was also  in charge of Offensive Operations in Siam and French Indochina as well as Air and Sea Forces.ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

December 14
The Civil War, 1862

Virginia, The Battle of Fredericksburg/Marye’s Heights.

Major General Ambrose Burnside ordered renewed attacks, but was persuaded by his officers that it was futile. He ordered his troops back across the river. His losses were great. Over 12,000 were killed or wounded. Confederate losses were  4,700. The battle proves to be one of the South’s most overwhelming victories. Once again the Unions army’s advance to Richmond had failed. The defeat lowers morale in the Army of the Potomac and throughout the North

North Carolina, Land War
The Battle of Kinston. A Union expedition towards the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad at Goldsborough pushes aside tough Confederate opposition at Kinston Bridge.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 13


The Civil War, 1862  


Virginia, The Battle of Fredericksburg/Marye’s Heights.   Eager to prove his aggressiveness as the commander of the Army of the Potomac, Major General Ambrose Burnside plann...ed a winter offensive toward Richmond, Virginia, aiming to cross the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg.   Not until December 11 was Burnside able to bridge the river. His forces built six pontoon bridges under fire from Confederates in the city. By nightfall they occupied Fredericksburg.
On December 12 Edwin V. Sumner’s Union Right Grand Division formed up among Fredericksburg’s streets, while William B. Franklin’s Left Grand Division marched downstream to cross.
Franklin made an assault with the aim of taking Prospect Hill. By 09:00 hours just two small divisions had advanced, only to be pinned down by Confederate fire. By the afternoon they were still at the foot of the ridge. A counterattack drove the Federals back. Franklin’s assault was over for no gain.

Burnside’s second attack was toward Longstreet. From 12:00 hours brigade after brigade of Summer Grand Divisions advanced out of the city, trying to cover the 800 yards (730m) of open ground to the Confederate guns on Marye’s Heights positioned behind a stone wall. There were 14 successive charges, but not one Union Soldier got within 100 feet (30m) of the wall. By evening 6,500 Union troops were dead and dying.
 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 12

German Defences, France, 1943

Field Marshall Erwin Rommel arrives in France to review defence preparations. He is on an inspection tour of the western coast, from Denmark to the Spanish border, ordered by Hitler and the Army High command, the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) in November. Rommel will review the progress of the fixed defences of the “Atlantic Wall” and the preparedness of German Army units. He sets up his headquarters at Fontainebleu, southeast of Paris, and begins work north of the River Seine. This coastal sector of the Pas de Calais, from Le Havre to Ostend, is held by the Fifteenth Army, commanded by General Hans von Salmuth. It is the stretch of French coast closest to great Britain, and the most likely target for an allied invasion.
http://www.militarytour.com

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 11

WW11 Egypt, 1940

Sidi Barrani a small town on the Egyptian coast was the first of the main Italian positions to fall during the British ‘Operation Compass‘. A few days earlier they had successfully overcome the series of Italian desert fortified camps that ran south from their main base in Sidi Barrani. Then the coast road running back to Libya was cut west of the town leaving the garrison of some 20,000 to fight it out.

Eventually the Italians surrendered and the British found themselves struggling to deal with unexpected numbers of prisoners. It was all welcome news back in Britain, the first substantial British success since the start of the Blit.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 10

WWII Great Britian, 1940:
The first executions under the Treason Act took place when German spies were executed at Pentonville Prison.   Jose Waldberg, 25, a German national, and Karl Heinrich Meier, 24, a Dutchman of German origin, were hung at Pentonville Prison following their conviction at the Old Bailey in November.


ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

December 9

WWII , 1941 Eastern Front:
The Soviet drive against Guderian's forces reaches and captures Elets. In the north, under General Meretskov, the Red Army retakes Tikhvin but cannot relieve the siege at Leningrad. The situation inside the city is desperate, rations are below the starvation level. ... Pacific: Japanese troops continue to land at Kota Bharu, Singora and Patani. Japanese forces occupy Bangkok. Gilbert Islands, Tarawa and Makin are occupied by the Japanese.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 8

WW11, 1942 Tunisia: German forces, led by General Gause capture Bizerta capture 4 French destroyers, 9 submarines and 3 other warships. ... New Guinea In yet another bloody engagement, the Japanese positions at Gona are attacked by the Australian 21st Brigade.
 
 
ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 7

WW11 Pearl Harbour Raid:

Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor was one of the great defining moments in history. A single carefully-planned and well-executed stroke removed the United States Navy's battl...eship force as a possible threat to the Japanese Empire's southward expansion. America, unprepared and now considerably weakened, was abruptly brought into the Second World War as a full combatant.
 
The Civil War, 1862 Tennessee, Land War The Battle of Hartville. Union troops guarding the Hartsville Crossing on the Cumberland River are over-whelmed by a large-scale Confederate attack. The Union defeat allows more extensive Confederate raiding into West Tennessee and Kentucky. Arkansas, Land War
 
The Battle of Prairie Grove/Fayetteville. Confederate forces are forced to retreat after a bloody engagement in Washington County, giving the Federal forces control over northwest Arkansas.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 6


The Vietnam War, 1966

USA, Financial Strategy The Johnson Administration discloses that it will need an additional $9 to $10 billion US in supplemental funding in order to pay for the war in Vietnam during the current fiscal year.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 5

World War II, 1941

Politics:
  Great Britain declares war on Finland, Hungary and Romania.

Battle of Moscow:   In the Battle of Moscow Georgy Zhukov launches a massive Soviet counter-attack against the German army, with the biggest offensive launched against Army Group Centre.

 

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 3

South Vietnam, 1966

US Ground Forces:
The 4th Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment, of the US Army departs I corps Tactical Zone, and is now heading for III Corps Tactical Zone. From now on, the 4th Battalion will be replaced in I Corps Tactical Zone by the 3rd Battalion, 9th Marines.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 2

1942:  Physicists achieve the first nuclear chain reaction, a breakthrough that will make atomic weaponry a reality.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 1

1942:  The United States institutes a gasoline-rationing program across the nation.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 28

The Civil War, 1862, Arkansas, Land War
The Battle of Cane Hill/Boston Mountains. Federal forces defeat the rebels at Cane Hill, thus extending Union control in the Trans-Mississippi region.

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 27
1965, SOUTH VIETNAM, GROUND WAR: The South Vietnamese Army suffers a major defeat as the ARVN 7th Regiment operating in the Michelin Rubber Plantation northwest of Saigon engages the Viet Cong’s ...271st Regiment in battle. While the ARVN troops inflict a major blow against the Viet Cong, heavy casualties, including the death of the regimental commander, render the force ineffective.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 26

1940, FINAL SOLUTION, POLAND:
The Nazis begin creating a ghetto inWarsaw for the Jews, who will eventually be kept there in intolerable conditions.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 23

1940, POLITICS, ROMANIA: Prime Minister General Ion Antonescu leads Romania into the Axis alliance.

VIETNAM, 1966, U.S. SOCIAL POLICIES:
The Office of Civil Operations is established in South Vietnam. This is a US Embassy activity which has been founded in order to direct US civilian support of revolutionary development.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 20

 1939, SEA WAR, GREAT BRITAIN: First mines are dropped in British waters by the German aircraft.

1940, POLITICS, HUNGARY: Hungary joins the Axis powers. Since the Italian invasion ofGreece, the Germans have been attempting to secure their food and oil supplies from the Balkans by pressing the countries of the region to join the Tripartite Pact.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY 
November 19

1861, OKLAHOMA, INDIAN WARS: TheBattle ofRoundMountain. Unionist Creek and Seminole Indians under Chief Opothleyahola are defeated when their camp is attacked by Confederate troops commanded by Colonel Douglas H. Cooper.

1965, SOUTH VIETNAM, GROUND WAR: By the end of November 19, South Vietnamese forces reoccupy Hiep Duc but the 1st Viet Cong Regiment still controls the terrain to the northwest of the village. Two ARVN battalions kill 141 Viet Cong and capture 87 weapons while suffering 33 killed in action and 73 wounded. American military advisors working with the ARVN estimate that Marine Corps air support has accounted for an additional 300 Viet Cong killed.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 18

The Third Reich, 1940

Sea War, Atlantic
The first U-boat located, but not sunk, by radar fitted in a Sunderland flying boat.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 12

World War II, 1944

Air War, Norway.
RAF Lancaster bombers from 9 and 617 Squadrons sink the German battleship Tirpitz in Altenfiord killing 1100 of its screw when the ship capsizes.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 11

World War II, November 11-12, 1944

Pacific, Iwo Jima The Us Navy Bombards the Japanese-held island for the first time.

WW1 PARIS, 1918

Remembrance Day is observed on 11 November to recall the end of hostilities of World War I on that date in 1918. Hostilities formally ended "at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month", in accordance with the armistice signed by representatives of Germany and the Entente between 5:12 and 5:20 that morning. ("At the 11th hour" refers to the passing of the 11th hour, or 11:00 am.) The First World War officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

November 9, 1944

Western Front, France

General  George Patton’s US Third Army (500,000 men and 500 tanks) crosses the Moselle River on broad front toward the heart of the Reich.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

November 8

World War II, 1944

Western Front, Belgium The Canadian First Army competes the clearing of the Scheldt estuary. It takes 41,000 prisoners during the operation at a cost of 12,873 men killed, wounded, and missing.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

November 7

Espionage, Japan, 1944
The Japanese hang the spy of Richard Sorge at Sugamo Prison, Tokyo. He has been working for eight years as the Tokyo correspondent for a German newspaper, and during this time has sent the Soviet Union detailed information concerning German and Japanese plans, including the attack on the Soviet Union in 1941

The Civil War, 1862

The Union, Armed Forces
President Abraham Lincoln appoints Ambrose E. Burnside commander of the Union Army of the Potomac in place of George B McClellan, who he felt was not aggressive enough

Missouri, Land War
The Battle of Clark’s Mill/Vera Cruz. A Union force of 100 men occupying Clark’s Mill Douglas County, surrenders after battling 1,000 Confederate troops.

 

ON THIS MONTH IN MILITARY HISTORY

November

The Third Reich, 1940

Germany, Treaties. Hungary, Romania and Slovakia, a puppet state taken from the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia, sign treaties with Germany. The resettlement treaty between Germany and the soviet Union in regard to ethnic Germans living in Soviet-annexed Bassarabia and northern Bukovina has to be completed by November 1940. Throughout October, some 45,000 settlers make the long and so-called “final trek” to reception camps in Pomerania, Eastern Prussia and Warthegau before leaving for permanent settlement in the newly incorporated Polish territory. Each family was limited to 50kg (110lb) of personal possessions or two wagonloads. On arrival at the reception camp at Galatz, settlers are screened and processed before proceeding by train. Types of ethnic Germans from Bessarabia were given identity tags, but many families become separated. This policy was part of the grand Nazi scheme to colonize the conquered Eastern territories with “Nordic” blood.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 31

Eastern Front, Baltic, 1944

The Soviet 1st Baltic Front isolates the remnants of Army Group North in the Courland Peninsula.

The Third Reich, 1940

Sea War, Atlantic:  The German auxiliary cruiser Widder arrives in Brest after a cruise in American waters.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 28

Balkans, Greece
Hitler did not want conflict on his southern flank in the Balkans, and had restrained his Axis partner Mussolini on several occasions during the spring and summer of 1940 from initiating plans for an Italian invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece. Mussolini reluctantly accepted Hitler’s wishes as he was dependent on Germany for raw materials needed for armaments. On this morning, though, Italian forces based in Albania crossed the Frontier into Greece to initiate one of the most surprising campaigns of World War II.
To understand why the Italian dictator finally ignored Hitler’s directives and drew Germany into the conflict it is necessary to view the situation through Mussolini’s eyes. Benito Mussolini proclaimed the birth of a “New Roman Empire” that was to take shape under his direction and would recreate the ancient glories of Roman history, celebrated in the rhetoric of the Fascist poet D’Annunzio. He was a man obsessed with thoughts of person greatness and this proclamation was to satisfy his belief that he was indeed a genius. He has no master plan, unlike Hitler, to make his dream a reality. His decisions were frequently colored by the prevailing condition of his health, which was affected by the aftermath of syphilis contracted in his youth, as well as a duodenal ulcer. His arbitrary behaviour added to his intensely vain and theatrical nature. On occasions he exercised great shrewdness, on others he acted on impulse. Under Mussolini’s rule Italy had already overrun two weak states: Abyssinia in 1936 and Albania in March 1939. Mussolini was a realist and recognised that he did not possess the raw materials to wage war on a grand scale. This realization did not, however, prevent him before the outbreak of World War II from uttering bellicose sentiments illuminating the fact that Italy was ready to fight by Germany’s side. Privately he considered it folly to wage war at this time, and he attempted unsuccessfully to persuade Hitler not to attack Poland. In March 1940, an official German communique roundly presenting Germany’s military achievements, after only six months of war, brought Mussolini’s grudging admiration and deep envy. He has nothing to show in comparison to Hitler’s territorial gains. He felt his prestige as Europe’s first Fascist dictator demanded that he should occupy the stage and bask in the limelight the Fuhrer now enjoyed. In May 1940, Mussolini’s frustration was further heightened when the German armies drove the British forced off the continent and brought France to her knees. It not seemed certain to him that Germany would win the war. He has an understanding with Hitler that in the “New Europe” Italy would be rewarded with pickings from the French Empire. To reinforce this right and give Italy these spoils by force arms, Mussolini announced on June 10, 1940, her declaration of war on Great Britain and France. Unfortunately, II Duce was caught in what was his Foreign Minister Ciano ironically called “an outbreak of peace”.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 27

Civil War, 1962

Louisiana, Land War
The Battle of Georgia Landing/Labadieville/Texana. A Union expedition to take control of the Bayou Lafourche leads to a decisive defeat of Confederate troops around Labadieville.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 25

South Vietnam, Ground War, October 25-Febuary 12, 1966-1967

Operation Thayer I begins. This is an operation in Binh Dinh Province conducted by elements of the 1st Cavalry Divisions (Airmobile). It is followed by Operation Thayer II and in turn by Operation Pershing in the rich northern coastal plain and Kim Son and Loi Ci Valley to the west. There is a total of 1757 confirmed enemy casualties and the operation takes place over 111 days.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 24

The Vietnam War, October 24-25, 1966

USA Diplomacy
At a conference in Manila, President Johnson holds a meeting with leaders from six other nations; South Vietnam, New Zealand, Australia, Korea, Thailand and the Philippines. The conferees issue a four-point statement called the Declaration of Peace, which demands the peaceful settlement of the Vietnam War.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 21

Western Front, Germany,   1944
The city of Aachen surrenders to US forces following a 1-day siege.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 20

Balkans, Yugoslavia,1944
The 1st Proletarian Division of Marshals Tito’s Army of Liberation captures Belgrade.

Pacific, Philippines
As the US Sixth Army lands on Leyte Island, General Douglas MacArthur wades ashore and keeps a promise he made two years earlier: “I shall return.” By the evening 10,000 US troops are dug in around Leyte’s capital, Tacloban.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 18

South Vietnam, Ground War, October 18-December 30, 1966

Operation Paul Revere IV, a continuing operation, sees the soldiers of the US Army’s recently arrived 4th Infantry Divisions – along with elements of the 25th Infantry Division and the 1st Air Cavalry Division – conduct in Pleiku Province. The US soldiers inflict a total of 809 casualties on the enemy, and the operation takes place over 74 days altogether.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 14

Politics, Germany, 1944
Field Marshal Erwin Rommel commits suicide with poison. Implicated in the July assassination plot against Hitler, he has killed himself, under pressure, to save his family from arrest. He is to be given a state funeral as part of the charade to maintain the illusion that he was an uncompromising Nazi.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 12

South Vietnam, US Ground Forces, October 12-18, 1966

The US Army’s 1st Battalion, 40th Field Artillery Regiment, which consists of 105mm self-propelled howitzers, arrives at Da Nang, and the next day the US Army’s 2nd Battalion, 94th Artillery Regiment, consisting of Self Propelled 175mm guns, also arrives.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 11

Balkans, Yugoslavia,  October 11-19, 1944

The Red Army joins with the Yugoslavian First Army in the drive to Belgrade, which is abandoned by the Germans on the 19th.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 10

World War II, October 10-29, 1944

Eastern Front, Hungary: A massive tank battles ranges around Drebrecan between two panzer divisions of Germany’s Army Group Southern Ukraine, commanded by General Johannes Friessneer. The German forces have cut off three Soviet tank corps of Marshal Rodion Malinovsky’s 2nd Ukrainian Front. The Soviet lose many tanks in the initial German attacks, but fresh Soviet units tip the scales against the Germans, who do not have the forces to fight attritional battles. Farther south, the German Army Group E leaves Greece.

South Vietnam, US Ground Forces, 1966
The US 3rd Marine Division is ordered to deploy to Thua Thien and Quang Tri Provinces in the north of South Vietnam in order to conduct offensive operations as directed, and continue current offensive operations in Phu Bai TAOR Task Force Delta is ordered deactivated; Task Force X-Ray is activated at Chu Lai under the 1st Marine Division. The 1st Marine Division is now responsible for all three southern provinces around Chu Lai against an enemy growing in numbers.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 9

Western Front, Belgium, , 1944.
Although the Allies captured Antwerp on September 4, they have not been able to use the great port because there are German units on both sides of the Scheldt Estuary. Therefore, the Canadian First Army commences operations to eradicate the enemy presence in this area.

Pacific, Iwo Jima
Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, commander of all Allied forces in the Central Pacific, informs Lieutenant General Holland M. “Howling Mad” Smith, one of the leading exponents of amphibious warfare and commander of all US Marines in the Pacific, that the island of Iwo Jima will be his next target and that Smith will lead the invasion with three US Marine divisions. The island is within bombing range of the Japanese mainland.

The Third Reich, 1940

Sea War, Atlantic: The start of one of the most important and critical convoy battles: 21 ships are sunk from convoy SC7 and another 12 from convoy HX79, making this also one of the most successful U-boat “wolf pack” attacks.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 8

Civil War, 1862

Kentucky, Land War:  The Battle of Perryville. As part of the South’s fight for Kentucky, in September Generals Braxton Bragg and Kirby Smith launched an invasion from Tennessee. By October 4 Bragg secured the state capital of Frankfort and set up a new Confederate state government. It was short-lived, though. Today, the Union Army of the Ohio leg by Don Carlos Buell meets Bragg’s Army of the Mississippi. After a morning assault by divisions hits the Union left flank and forces it back. More Rebel divisions join the battle, eventually forcing back the Union line. Union troops on the left flank, reinforced by two brigades stabilize the line. A Confederate attack against a Union division on the Springfield Puke is repulsed, the attackers retreating back to Perryville. Union troops pursue into the town. With his left flank threatened, Bragg withdraws and retreats into East Tennessee. Union losses are 4,211; Confederate 3,196.

South Vietnam, US AID, , 1966
The 4th Battalion, 503rd Airborne Infantry, 173rd Airborne Brigade, arrives at Da Nang.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 7

The Third Reich, 1940

Deportations of “non-Germans” from Alsace-Lorraine, Saar and Baden take place.

Eastern Front, Romania
Germany invades Romania, seizing the vital oilfields at Ploesti. The pretext is the training of the Fascist Iron Guard.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 5

Civil War, 1862

Tennessee, Land War.  The Battle of Hatchie’s Bridge/Davis Bridge/Matamora. Following their defeat at Corinth, elements of Major General Earl Van Dorn’s Confederate Army of West Tennessee are pushed back across the Davis Bridge over the Hatchie River.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 4

Mediterranean, Greece, 1944
Determined to prevent a communist takeover in Greece, Winston Churchill launches Operation Manna. British troops land at Patrai in the Peloponnese as German forces pull back.

Civil War, 1862

Texas, Naval War.  The Battle of Galveston. The port of Galveston is forced to surrender by U.S. gunboats and tough Union diplomacy after a lengthy period of blockade.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 3

Air War, Britain, 1944
The German bombardment of Britain with V2 long-range heavy rockets has resumed from new launch sites dotted across Holland.

Civil War, October 3-4, 1862 Mississippi, Land War
The Battle of Corinth. A combined Confederate army of 22,000 men is defeated attempting to crush heavily defended Corinth, spoiling plans for a Confederate drive into mid-Tennessee.

THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 2

Eastern Front, Poland, 1944

After a bitter two-month battle, the last poles in Warsaw surrender. The Germans evacuate the entire remaining population and begin the systematic destruction of anything left standing. Polish deaths number 150,000 while the German commander, SS General Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, claims he lost 26,000 men.

South Vietnam, US Ground Forces, 1966
Equipped with 175mm guns, Battery C, 6th Battalion, 27th Field Artillery Regiment, comes under control Task Force Delta in I Corps Tactical Zone.

South Vietnam, Ground War, October 2-24, 1966
Operation Irving, lasting 23 days, is carried out by the sky soldiers on the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), ARVN, and Republic of Korea troops against the NVA 610th Division in Binh Dinh Province with 681 enemy casualties.

 

THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 1

The Vietnam War, 1966

South Vietnam, US Ground Forces General Herman Nickerson, Jr, replaces Major-General Lewis J. Fields as the Commanding General of the 1st Marine Divisions. 

Civil War, 1862, October 1-3

Florida, River War The Battle of St. Johns Bluff. Confederate coastal batteries on the St. John’s River near Jacksonville are abandoned after a Union amphibious operation.

 

THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 29, 1863

CIVIL WAR, Louisiana, Land War

The Battle of Stirling’s Plantation/Fordoche Bridge. Confederate troops act against act against a Union thrust towardTexas, defeating a 1,000-strong force atStirling’s Plantation/Fordoche Bridge. Total battle casualties are 575.

 

THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 25, 1966

South Vietnam, US Aid.

Marine Air Group 13 arrives at the Marine Air Facility at Chu Lai, having come from its base in Iwakuni, Japan.

 

THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 23

Air War, Germany.

The RAF makes a night precision raid of theDortmundtoEmscanal, the inland waterway that links theRuhrwith other industrial centers. A total of 141 aircraft are involved, the canal is breached, and a section drained. The RAF loses 14 bombers

Western Front, France, September 23-30

The Canadian 3rd Division invests the port of Calais, which is defended by 7500 men. Following heavy artillery and bomber attacks and the use of specialized armor Calais surrenders on the 30th.

South Vietnam, Ground War, September 23-November 9, 1966

Operation Maeng Ho is conducted by the elite republic of Korea Capital Division which is operating in Binh Dinh Province. It is later reported that in this operation, which continues over a period of 48 days, theROKsoldiers kill more than 1161 enemy soldiers.

 

THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 22

Western Front, France, 1944.

Boulognesurrenders to the Canadian II Corps; its garrison of 20,000 men is taken into captivity.

Western Front, Holland, September 22-25

Outside Arnhem, the British XXX Corps’advance is slowed by German resistance. The Polish Brigade drops south of the Neder Rijn near Driel. On the 23rd, attempts by by poles and advance troops of XXX corps to cross the river are driven back, and so the evacuation of the surviving paratroopers begin two days later, leaving 2500 of their dead comrades behind.

Tennessee, Land War, 1863

The Battleof Blountsville. During Burnside’s moves into east Tennessee, Unions forces overcome the 1st Tennessee Cavalry Regiment at Blountsville.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 21

Politics, Yugoslavia,1944

The partisan chief Marshal Tito meets the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. They reach agreement on the “Temporary entry of the Red Army intoYugoslavia

Italy, Adriatic Sector, 1944

The Eighth Army takes Timmini after a week of heavy fighting. Since the beginning of the offensive against the Gothic Line, it has lost 14,000 men killed, wounded and missing plus 200 tanks. The Italian campaign has not lived up to being the “soft underbelly of Europe.” A more accurate description would be “touch old gut.”

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 20, 1863

Tennessee, Land War

TheBattleofChickamauga. Initial Rebel attacks begin four hours late due to poor staff work and make little headway against Thomas’ well-situated defensive line on theUnionleft. At11:00hours, Rosecrans pulls Thomas Wood’s divisions out of the right of his line to plug what he thinks is a gap farther north. Fortunately for the Confederates, three of their divisions under Longstreet launch an attack into the gap left by wood at precisely the same time. TheUnion’s defensive position is shattered. As Longstreet’s men come close to cutting his line of communication withChattanooga, Rosecrans orders a retreat.

Not all Union forces are through fighting. Troops under George H. Thomas make a stand on Snodgrass Hill, a wooded ridge on the northern end of the Union line. Thomas and his force succeed in holding Braggs at bat as Rosecrans and the bulk of the Union army withdraw intoChattanooga. For his efforts Thomas earns the Medal of Honor and is thereafter known as the “Rock of Chickamauga.” In stark contrast to Thomas, Rosecrans is inconsolable as he carried along intoChattanoogaby the wreckage of his army.

Chickamaugais a hollow victory for the Confederates: Bragg is unable to follow it up with the final defeat of the Army of theCumberland. At a cost of over 18,000 casualties, Bragg can only push Rosecrans back to Chattanooga- he is unable to destroy him or force the surrender of his army by a siege.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 19

Western Front, Holland, September 19-21, 1944

Forward elements of the British XXX corps reach US paratroopers at the Eindhoven, but at Arnhem all attempts to break through to the troops fail. On the 20th, the bridge at Nijmegen is captured by a combined force drawn from the US 82nd Airborne Divisions and the British XXX Corps. The next day, the British troops at Arnhem are overwhelmed. The remainder form a defensive perimeter on the northern bank of the Neder Rijn, around the village of Oosterbeck.

South Vietnam, South Korean Forces, 1966

The 2nd Battalion of the 2nd Brigade,Republic ofKorea Marine Corps, arrives at Chu Lai from Cam Ranh Bay, where they were stationed to Operate as a security force.

Civil War, 1863

Tennessee, Land War:  The Battle of Chickamauga. A single Union divisions initiates the battle this morning. It advances believing that is has trapped a small Confederate force west of Chickamauga Creek. The fighting is inconclusive, with both sides suffering heavy casualties. A late afternoon attack by John Bell Hood’s Confederates threaten to split the Union line, but reinforcements plug the gap at the last moment. Rosecrans plans to fight on the defensive tomorrow and has his men dig trenches for their protection.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 18, 1863

Tennessee, Land War.

TheBattleofChickamauga. General Rosecrans, commander of the Unions Army of theCumberland(62,000 men), orders George H. Thomas to position his corps north of Thomas L. Crittenden’s corps to prevent Confederate General Braxton Bragg and his 65,000 men from cutting off the Union army from Chattanooga, a key rail junction on the main Confederate east-west railroad. Not realizing that Thomas now forms the left flank of the Union army, Braggs crosses his forces over Chickamauga Creek and makes camp after some skirmishing with two Union cavalry brigades. The opposing battle lines are set, but due to the thickly wooden terrain along the creek, neither side is aware of it.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
September 17

Western Front, Holland, 1944

Operation Market Garden, General Bernard Montgomery’s plan for an armored and airborne thrust across Hollandto outflank the German defenses, begins. The British 1st Airborne Divisions lands near Arnhem the US 101st Airborne Divisions near Einghoven, the US 82nd Airborne Division near Grave and Nijmegen, while the British XXX Corps advances from the Dutch border. The 82nd lands without difficulty and takes the Maas and Maas-Waal Canal bridges, but then encounters heavy resistance as Nijmegen. The 101st Division also takes its bridges, but the British paratroopers discover their way to Arnhem is blocked by German units. Only one battalion, under Lieutenant Colonel John Frost, manages to reach the bridge, where it is quickly cut off.

The Third Reich, 1944

Western Front, Holland:  Operation Market Garden, Montgomery’s plan for an armored and airborne thrust through Holland, begins. General Eisenhower, supreme commander of the Allied forces, has taken over from Montgomery as commander of the Allied ground forces and decides to advance on a broad front towards the Rhine, notwithstanding Market Garden. Field Marshal von Rundstedt is given back command in the West. Allied forces now have a complete front from the Channel to Switzerland and move towards the German West Wall, the “Siegfried” line. France is almost totally liberated.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 15

Eastern Front, Poland, 1944

Units of the soviet-raised First Polish Army cross theVistulaRiverand seize bridgeheads isWarsaw.

Air War, Norway, 1944

Lancastersfrom 9 and 617 Squadrons of the RAF attackGermany’s only remaining battleship – the Tirpitz – in Altenfiord. However, little damage is done, chiefly due to the effectiveness of the German smokescreens.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 14- November 24, 1966

South Vietnam, Ground War

Operation Attleboroin War Zone C, TayNinhProvince, takes place over a 72-day period and is initiated by the 196th Light Infantry Brigade. There is no significant contact with the enemy until October 19 when a sizeable enemy base area is uncovered. By November, the 1st Infantry Division, and several ARVN battalions are involves.

A Major action takes place opn November 3, involving the US1st and 25th Infantry Divisions, 196th Light Infantry Brigade, 173rd Airborne Brigade and two South Vietnamese Battalions.

As it ends, US MACV reports that there are 1106 confirmed enemy casualties. This figure is the largest number of enemy casualties recorded to date as the result of aUSmilitary operation.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 13-18, 1966

South Vietnam, Ground War

The US Marines Conduct Deckhouse IV, an amphibious search and destroy operation in conjunction with the ongoing Prairie I Operation, 12.8km (8 miles) northeast of Dong Ha in I Corps Tactical Zone.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 11

South Vietnam, Politics, 1966

Of the 718,024 eligible voters in I Corps Tactical Zone 87.4 percent vote in South Vietnam’s Constituent Assembly election. Over 80 percent of those who register vote throughout polling places inSouth Vietnam.