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This Day in History

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 17

The Civil War, 1862

North Carolina, Land War
The Battle of Goldsborough Bridge. Brigadier General John G. Foster’s Goldsborough expedition reaches its destination, destroying railroad track and the Goldsborough bridge.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 16

WW11 Naval War, 1939

Captain Langsdorf of the Admiral Graf Spee, a German Heavy Cruiser,  believed he was trapped in Montevideo Harbour,  Uruguay by a strong Royal Naval task force after it had been forced into Montevideo with the British success of the Battle of River Plate.  The Battle was the first major naval action of WW11.

Langsdorf telegraphs Germany:   ‘If a break-through would result in certain destruction of Graf Spee, without opportunity of damaging enemy, request decision on whether the ship should be scuttled in spite of insufficient depth in the estuary of the La Plata, or whether internment is to be preferred’.

The Civil War, 1862

North Carolina, Land War
The Battle of White Hall/Whitehall/White Hall Ferry. Federal troops of the Goldsborough expedition fix Confederate forces on the Neuse River while the mass Union troops continue their march.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 15
Asia, 1943

Lord Louis Mountbatten was  appointed Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia.  He was in charge of land forces in Burma, Malaya, Sumatra, India and Ceylong.  Mountbatten was also  in charge of Offensive Operations in Siam and French Indochina as well as Air and Sea Forces.ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

December 14
The Civil War, 1862

Virginia, The Battle of Fredericksburg/Marye’s Heights.

Major General Ambrose Burnside ordered renewed attacks, but was persuaded by his officers that it was futile. He ordered his troops back across the river. His losses were great. Over 12,000 were killed or wounded. Confederate losses were  4,700. The battle proves to be one of the South’s most overwhelming victories. Once again the Unions army’s advance to Richmond had failed. The defeat lowers morale in the Army of the Potomac and throughout the North

North Carolina, Land War
The Battle of Kinston. A Union expedition towards the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad at Goldsborough pushes aside tough Confederate opposition at Kinston Bridge.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 13


The Civil War, 1862  


Virginia, The Battle of Fredericksburg/Marye’s Heights.   Eager to prove his aggressiveness as the commander of the Army of the Potomac, Major General Ambrose Burnside plann...ed a winter offensive toward Richmond, Virginia, aiming to cross the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg.   Not until December 11 was Burnside able to bridge the river. His forces built six pontoon bridges under fire from Confederates in the city. By nightfall they occupied Fredericksburg.
On December 12 Edwin V. Sumner’s Union Right Grand Division formed up among Fredericksburg’s streets, while William B. Franklin’s Left Grand Division marched downstream to cross.
Franklin made an assault with the aim of taking Prospect Hill. By 09:00 hours just two small divisions had advanced, only to be pinned down by Confederate fire. By the afternoon they were still at the foot of the ridge. A counterattack drove the Federals back. Franklin’s assault was over for no gain.

Burnside’s second attack was toward Longstreet. From 12:00 hours brigade after brigade of Summer Grand Divisions advanced out of the city, trying to cover the 800 yards (730m) of open ground to the Confederate guns on Marye’s Heights positioned behind a stone wall. There were 14 successive charges, but not one Union Soldier got within 100 feet (30m) of the wall. By evening 6,500 Union troops were dead and dying.
 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 12

German Defences, France, 1943

Field Marshall Erwin Rommel arrives in France to review defence preparations. He is on an inspection tour of the western coast, from Denmark to the Spanish border, ordered by Hitler and the Army High command, the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) in November. Rommel will review the progress of the fixed defences of the “Atlantic Wall” and the preparedness of German Army units. He sets up his headquarters at Fontainebleu, southeast of Paris, and begins work north of the River Seine. This coastal sector of the Pas de Calais, from Le Havre to Ostend, is held by the Fifteenth Army, commanded by General Hans von Salmuth. It is the stretch of French coast closest to great Britain, and the most likely target for an allied invasion.
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ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 11

WW11 Egypt, 1940

Sidi Barrani a small town on the Egyptian coast was the first of the main Italian positions to fall during the British ‘Operation Compass‘. A few days earlier they had successfully overcome the series of Italian desert fortified camps that ran south from their main base in Sidi Barrani. Then the coast road running back to Libya was cut west of the town leaving the garrison of some 20,000 to fight it out.

Eventually the Italians surrendered and the British found themselves struggling to deal with unexpected numbers of prisoners. It was all welcome news back in Britain, the first substantial British success since the start of the Blit.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 10

WWII Great Britian, 1940:
The first executions under the Treason Act took place when German spies were executed at Pentonville Prison.   Jose Waldberg, 25, a German national, and Karl Heinrich Meier, 24, a Dutchman of German origin, were hung at Pentonville Prison following their conviction at the Old Bailey in November.


ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

December 9

WWII , 1941 Eastern Front:
The Soviet drive against Guderian's forces reaches and captures Elets. In the north, under General Meretskov, the Red Army retakes Tikhvin but cannot relieve the siege at Leningrad. The situation inside the city is desperate, rations are below the starvation level. ... Pacific: Japanese troops continue to land at Kota Bharu, Singora and Patani. Japanese forces occupy Bangkok. Gilbert Islands, Tarawa and Makin are occupied by the Japanese.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 8

WW11, 1942 Tunisia: German forces, led by General Gause capture Bizerta capture 4 French destroyers, 9 submarines and 3 other warships. ... New Guinea In yet another bloody engagement, the Japanese positions at Gona are attacked by the Australian 21st Brigade.
 
 
ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 7

WW11 Pearl Harbour Raid:

Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor was one of the great defining moments in history. A single carefully-planned and well-executed stroke removed the United States Navy's battl...eship force as a possible threat to the Japanese Empire's southward expansion. America, unprepared and now considerably weakened, was abruptly brought into the Second World War as a full combatant.
 
The Civil War, 1862 Tennessee, Land War The Battle of Hartville. Union troops guarding the Hartsville Crossing on the Cumberland River are over-whelmed by a large-scale Confederate attack. The Union defeat allows more extensive Confederate raiding into West Tennessee and Kentucky. Arkansas, Land War
 
The Battle of Prairie Grove/Fayetteville. Confederate forces are forced to retreat after a bloody engagement in Washington County, giving the Federal forces control over northwest Arkansas.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 6


The Vietnam War, 1966

USA, Financial Strategy The Johnson Administration discloses that it will need an additional $9 to $10 billion US in supplemental funding in order to pay for the war in Vietnam during the current fiscal year.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 5

World War II, 1941

Politics:
  Great Britain declares war on Finland, Hungary and Romania.

Battle of Moscow:   In the Battle of Moscow Georgy Zhukov launches a massive Soviet counter-attack against the German army, with the biggest offensive launched against Army Group Centre.

 

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 3

South Vietnam, 1966

US Ground Forces:
The 4th Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment, of the US Army departs I corps Tactical Zone, and is now heading for III Corps Tactical Zone. From now on, the 4th Battalion will be replaced in I Corps Tactical Zone by the 3rd Battalion, 9th Marines.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 2

1942:  Physicists achieve the first nuclear chain reaction, a breakthrough that will make atomic weaponry a reality.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
December 1

1942:  The United States institutes a gasoline-rationing program across the nation.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 28

The Civil War, 1862, Arkansas, Land War
The Battle of Cane Hill/Boston Mountains. Federal forces defeat the rebels at Cane Hill, thus extending Union control in the Trans-Mississippi region.

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 27
1965, SOUTH VIETNAM, GROUND WAR: The South Vietnamese Army suffers a major defeat as the ARVN 7th Regiment operating in the Michelin Rubber Plantation northwest of Saigon engages the Viet Cong’s ...271st Regiment in battle. While the ARVN troops inflict a major blow against the Viet Cong, heavy casualties, including the death of the regimental commander, render the force ineffective.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 26

1940, FINAL SOLUTION, POLAND:
The Nazis begin creating a ghetto inWarsaw for the Jews, who will eventually be kept there in intolerable conditions.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 23

1940, POLITICS, ROMANIA: Prime Minister General Ion Antonescu leads Romania into the Axis alliance.

VIETNAM, 1966, U.S. SOCIAL POLICIES:
The Office of Civil Operations is established in South Vietnam. This is a US Embassy activity which has been founded in order to direct US civilian support of revolutionary development.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 20

 1939, SEA WAR, GREAT BRITAIN: First mines are dropped in British waters by the German aircraft.

1940, POLITICS, HUNGARY: Hungary joins the Axis powers. Since the Italian invasion ofGreece, the Germans have been attempting to secure their food and oil supplies from the Balkans by pressing the countries of the region to join the Tripartite Pact.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY 
November 19

1861, OKLAHOMA, INDIAN WARS: TheBattle ofRoundMountain. Unionist Creek and Seminole Indians under Chief Opothleyahola are defeated when their camp is attacked by Confederate troops commanded by Colonel Douglas H. Cooper.

1965, SOUTH VIETNAM, GROUND WAR: By the end of November 19, South Vietnamese forces reoccupy Hiep Duc but the 1st Viet Cong Regiment still controls the terrain to the northwest of the village. Two ARVN battalions kill 141 Viet Cong and capture 87 weapons while suffering 33 killed in action and 73 wounded. American military advisors working with the ARVN estimate that Marine Corps air support has accounted for an additional 300 Viet Cong killed.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 18

The Third Reich, 1940

Sea War, Atlantic
The first U-boat located, but not sunk, by radar fitted in a Sunderland flying boat.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 12

World War II, 1944

Air War, Norway.
RAF Lancaster bombers from 9 and 617 Squadrons sink the German battleship Tirpitz in Altenfiord killing 1100 of its screw when the ship capsizes.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
November 11

World War II, November 11-12, 1944

Pacific, Iwo Jima The Us Navy Bombards the Japanese-held island for the first time.

WW1 PARIS, 1918

Remembrance Day is observed on 11 November to recall the end of hostilities of World War I on that date in 1918. Hostilities formally ended "at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month", in accordance with the armistice signed by representatives of Germany and the Entente between 5:12 and 5:20 that morning. ("At the 11th hour" refers to the passing of the 11th hour, or 11:00 am.) The First World War officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

November 9, 1944

Western Front, France

General  George Patton’s US Third Army (500,000 men and 500 tanks) crosses the Moselle River on broad front toward the heart of the Reich.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

November 8

World War II, 1944

Western Front, Belgium The Canadian First Army competes the clearing of the Scheldt estuary. It takes 41,000 prisoners during the operation at a cost of 12,873 men killed, wounded, and missing.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

November 7

Espionage, Japan, 1944
The Japanese hang the spy of Richard Sorge at Sugamo Prison, Tokyo. He has been working for eight years as the Tokyo correspondent for a German newspaper, and during this time has sent the Soviet Union detailed information concerning German and Japanese plans, including the attack on the Soviet Union in 1941

The Civil War, 1862

The Union, Armed Forces
President Abraham Lincoln appoints Ambrose E. Burnside commander of the Union Army of the Potomac in place of George B McClellan, who he felt was not aggressive enough

Missouri, Land War
The Battle of Clark’s Mill/Vera Cruz. A Union force of 100 men occupying Clark’s Mill Douglas County, surrenders after battling 1,000 Confederate troops.

 

ON THIS MONTH IN MILITARY HISTORY

November

The Third Reich, 1940

Germany, Treaties. Hungary, Romania and Slovakia, a puppet state taken from the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia, sign treaties with Germany. The resettlement treaty between Germany and the soviet Union in regard to ethnic Germans living in Soviet-annexed Bassarabia and northern Bukovina has to be completed by November 1940. Throughout October, some 45,000 settlers make the long and so-called “final trek” to reception camps in Pomerania, Eastern Prussia and Warthegau before leaving for permanent settlement in the newly incorporated Polish territory. Each family was limited to 50kg (110lb) of personal possessions or two wagonloads. On arrival at the reception camp at Galatz, settlers are screened and processed before proceeding by train. Types of ethnic Germans from Bessarabia were given identity tags, but many families become separated. This policy was part of the grand Nazi scheme to colonize the conquered Eastern territories with “Nordic” blood.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 31

Eastern Front, Baltic, 1944

The Soviet 1st Baltic Front isolates the remnants of Army Group North in the Courland Peninsula.

The Third Reich, 1940

Sea War, Atlantic:  The German auxiliary cruiser Widder arrives in Brest after a cruise in American waters.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 28

Balkans, Greece
Hitler did not want conflict on his southern flank in the Balkans, and had restrained his Axis partner Mussolini on several occasions during the spring and summer of 1940 from initiating plans for an Italian invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece. Mussolini reluctantly accepted Hitler’s wishes as he was dependent on Germany for raw materials needed for armaments. On this morning, though, Italian forces based in Albania crossed the Frontier into Greece to initiate one of the most surprising campaigns of World War II.
To understand why the Italian dictator finally ignored Hitler’s directives and drew Germany into the conflict it is necessary to view the situation through Mussolini’s eyes. Benito Mussolini proclaimed the birth of a “New Roman Empire” that was to take shape under his direction and would recreate the ancient glories of Roman history, celebrated in the rhetoric of the Fascist poet D’Annunzio. He was a man obsessed with thoughts of person greatness and this proclamation was to satisfy his belief that he was indeed a genius. He has no master plan, unlike Hitler, to make his dream a reality. His decisions were frequently colored by the prevailing condition of his health, which was affected by the aftermath of syphilis contracted in his youth, as well as a duodenal ulcer. His arbitrary behaviour added to his intensely vain and theatrical nature. On occasions he exercised great shrewdness, on others he acted on impulse. Under Mussolini’s rule Italy had already overrun two weak states: Abyssinia in 1936 and Albania in March 1939. Mussolini was a realist and recognised that he did not possess the raw materials to wage war on a grand scale. This realization did not, however, prevent him before the outbreak of World War II from uttering bellicose sentiments illuminating the fact that Italy was ready to fight by Germany’s side. Privately he considered it folly to wage war at this time, and he attempted unsuccessfully to persuade Hitler not to attack Poland. In March 1940, an official German communique roundly presenting Germany’s military achievements, after only six months of war, brought Mussolini’s grudging admiration and deep envy. He has nothing to show in comparison to Hitler’s territorial gains. He felt his prestige as Europe’s first Fascist dictator demanded that he should occupy the stage and bask in the limelight the Fuhrer now enjoyed. In May 1940, Mussolini’s frustration was further heightened when the German armies drove the British forced off the continent and brought France to her knees. It not seemed certain to him that Germany would win the war. He has an understanding with Hitler that in the “New Europe” Italy would be rewarded with pickings from the French Empire. To reinforce this right and give Italy these spoils by force arms, Mussolini announced on June 10, 1940, her declaration of war on Great Britain and France. Unfortunately, II Duce was caught in what was his Foreign Minister Ciano ironically called “an outbreak of peace”.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 27

Civil War, 1962

Louisiana, Land War
The Battle of Georgia Landing/Labadieville/Texana. A Union expedition to take control of the Bayou Lafourche leads to a decisive defeat of Confederate troops around Labadieville.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 25

South Vietnam, Ground War, October 25-Febuary 12, 1966-1967

Operation Thayer I begins. This is an operation in Binh Dinh Province conducted by elements of the 1st Cavalry Divisions (Airmobile). It is followed by Operation Thayer II and in turn by Operation Pershing in the rich northern coastal plain and Kim Son and Loi Ci Valley to the west. There is a total of 1757 confirmed enemy casualties and the operation takes place over 111 days.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 24

The Vietnam War, October 24-25, 1966

USA Diplomacy
At a conference in Manila, President Johnson holds a meeting with leaders from six other nations; South Vietnam, New Zealand, Australia, Korea, Thailand and the Philippines. The conferees issue a four-point statement called the Declaration of Peace, which demands the peaceful settlement of the Vietnam War.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 21

Western Front, Germany,   1944
The city of Aachen surrenders to US forces following a 1-day siege.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 20

Balkans, Yugoslavia,1944
The 1st Proletarian Division of Marshals Tito’s Army of Liberation captures Belgrade.

Pacific, Philippines
As the US Sixth Army lands on Leyte Island, General Douglas MacArthur wades ashore and keeps a promise he made two years earlier: “I shall return.” By the evening 10,000 US troops are dug in around Leyte’s capital, Tacloban.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 18

South Vietnam, Ground War, October 18-December 30, 1966

Operation Paul Revere IV, a continuing operation, sees the soldiers of the US Army’s recently arrived 4th Infantry Divisions – along with elements of the 25th Infantry Division and the 1st Air Cavalry Division – conduct in Pleiku Province. The US soldiers inflict a total of 809 casualties on the enemy, and the operation takes place over 74 days altogether.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 14

Politics, Germany, 1944
Field Marshal Erwin Rommel commits suicide with poison. Implicated in the July assassination plot against Hitler, he has killed himself, under pressure, to save his family from arrest. He is to be given a state funeral as part of the charade to maintain the illusion that he was an uncompromising Nazi.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 12

South Vietnam, US Ground Forces, October 12-18, 1966

The US Army’s 1st Battalion, 40th Field Artillery Regiment, which consists of 105mm self-propelled howitzers, arrives at Da Nang, and the next day the US Army’s 2nd Battalion, 94th Artillery Regiment, consisting of Self Propelled 175mm guns, also arrives.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 11

Balkans, Yugoslavia,  October 11-19, 1944

The Red Army joins with the Yugoslavian First Army in the drive to Belgrade, which is abandoned by the Germans on the 19th.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 10

World War II, October 10-29, 1944

Eastern Front, Hungary: A massive tank battles ranges around Drebrecan between two panzer divisions of Germany’s Army Group Southern Ukraine, commanded by General Johannes Friessneer. The German forces have cut off three Soviet tank corps of Marshal Rodion Malinovsky’s 2nd Ukrainian Front. The Soviet lose many tanks in the initial German attacks, but fresh Soviet units tip the scales against the Germans, who do not have the forces to fight attritional battles. Farther south, the German Army Group E leaves Greece.

South Vietnam, US Ground Forces, 1966
The US 3rd Marine Division is ordered to deploy to Thua Thien and Quang Tri Provinces in the north of South Vietnam in order to conduct offensive operations as directed, and continue current offensive operations in Phu Bai TAOR Task Force Delta is ordered deactivated; Task Force X-Ray is activated at Chu Lai under the 1st Marine Division. The 1st Marine Division is now responsible for all three southern provinces around Chu Lai against an enemy growing in numbers.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 9

Western Front, Belgium, , 1944.
Although the Allies captured Antwerp on September 4, they have not been able to use the great port because there are German units on both sides of the Scheldt Estuary. Therefore, the Canadian First Army commences operations to eradicate the enemy presence in this area.

Pacific, Iwo Jima
Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, commander of all Allied forces in the Central Pacific, informs Lieutenant General Holland M. “Howling Mad” Smith, one of the leading exponents of amphibious warfare and commander of all US Marines in the Pacific, that the island of Iwo Jima will be his next target and that Smith will lead the invasion with three US Marine divisions. The island is within bombing range of the Japanese mainland.

The Third Reich, 1940

Sea War, Atlantic: The start of one of the most important and critical convoy battles: 21 ships are sunk from convoy SC7 and another 12 from convoy HX79, making this also one of the most successful U-boat “wolf pack” attacks.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 8

Civil War, 1862

Kentucky, Land War:  The Battle of Perryville. As part of the South’s fight for Kentucky, in September Generals Braxton Bragg and Kirby Smith launched an invasion from Tennessee. By October 4 Bragg secured the state capital of Frankfort and set up a new Confederate state government. It was short-lived, though. Today, the Union Army of the Ohio leg by Don Carlos Buell meets Bragg’s Army of the Mississippi. After a morning assault by divisions hits the Union left flank and forces it back. More Rebel divisions join the battle, eventually forcing back the Union line. Union troops on the left flank, reinforced by two brigades stabilize the line. A Confederate attack against a Union division on the Springfield Puke is repulsed, the attackers retreating back to Perryville. Union troops pursue into the town. With his left flank threatened, Bragg withdraws and retreats into East Tennessee. Union losses are 4,211; Confederate 3,196.

South Vietnam, US AID, , 1966
The 4th Battalion, 503rd Airborne Infantry, 173rd Airborne Brigade, arrives at Da Nang.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 7

The Third Reich, 1940

Deportations of “non-Germans” from Alsace-Lorraine, Saar and Baden take place.

Eastern Front, Romania
Germany invades Romania, seizing the vital oilfields at Ploesti. The pretext is the training of the Fascist Iron Guard.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 5

Civil War, 1862

Tennessee, Land War.  The Battle of Hatchie’s Bridge/Davis Bridge/Matamora. Following their defeat at Corinth, elements of Major General Earl Van Dorn’s Confederate Army of West Tennessee are pushed back across the Davis Bridge over the Hatchie River.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 4

Mediterranean, Greece, 1944
Determined to prevent a communist takeover in Greece, Winston Churchill launches Operation Manna. British troops land at Patrai in the Peloponnese as German forces pull back.

Civil War, 1862

Texas, Naval War.  The Battle of Galveston. The port of Galveston is forced to surrender by U.S. gunboats and tough Union diplomacy after a lengthy period of blockade.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 3

Air War, Britain, 1944
The German bombardment of Britain with V2 long-range heavy rockets has resumed from new launch sites dotted across Holland.

Civil War, October 3-4, 1862 Mississippi, Land War
The Battle of Corinth. A combined Confederate army of 22,000 men is defeated attempting to crush heavily defended Corinth, spoiling plans for a Confederate drive into mid-Tennessee.

THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 2

Eastern Front, Poland, 1944

After a bitter two-month battle, the last poles in Warsaw surrender. The Germans evacuate the entire remaining population and begin the systematic destruction of anything left standing. Polish deaths number 150,000 while the German commander, SS General Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, claims he lost 26,000 men.

South Vietnam, US Ground Forces, 1966
Equipped with 175mm guns, Battery C, 6th Battalion, 27th Field Artillery Regiment, comes under control Task Force Delta in I Corps Tactical Zone.

South Vietnam, Ground War, October 2-24, 1966
Operation Irving, lasting 23 days, is carried out by the sky soldiers on the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), ARVN, and Republic of Korea troops against the NVA 610th Division in Binh Dinh Province with 681 enemy casualties.

 

THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

October 1

The Vietnam War, 1966

South Vietnam, US Ground Forces General Herman Nickerson, Jr, replaces Major-General Lewis J. Fields as the Commanding General of the 1st Marine Divisions. 

Civil War, 1862, October 1-3

Florida, River War The Battle of St. Johns Bluff. Confederate coastal batteries on the St. John’s River near Jacksonville are abandoned after a Union amphibious operation.

 

THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 29, 1863

CIVIL WAR, Louisiana, Land War

The Battle of Stirling’s Plantation/Fordoche Bridge. Confederate troops act against act against a Union thrust towardTexas, defeating a 1,000-strong force atStirling’s Plantation/Fordoche Bridge. Total battle casualties are 575.

 

THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 25, 1966

South Vietnam, US Aid.

Marine Air Group 13 arrives at the Marine Air Facility at Chu Lai, having come from its base in Iwakuni, Japan.

 

THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 23

Air War, Germany.

The RAF makes a night precision raid of theDortmundtoEmscanal, the inland waterway that links theRuhrwith other industrial centers. A total of 141 aircraft are involved, the canal is breached, and a section drained. The RAF loses 14 bombers

Western Front, France, September 23-30

The Canadian 3rd Division invests the port of Calais, which is defended by 7500 men. Following heavy artillery and bomber attacks and the use of specialized armor Calais surrenders on the 30th.

South Vietnam, Ground War, September 23-November 9, 1966

Operation Maeng Ho is conducted by the elite republic of Korea Capital Division which is operating in Binh Dinh Province. It is later reported that in this operation, which continues over a period of 48 days, theROKsoldiers kill more than 1161 enemy soldiers.

 

THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 22

Western Front, France, 1944.

Boulognesurrenders to the Canadian II Corps; its garrison of 20,000 men is taken into captivity.

Western Front, Holland, September 22-25

Outside Arnhem, the British XXX Corps’advance is slowed by German resistance. The Polish Brigade drops south of the Neder Rijn near Driel. On the 23rd, attempts by by poles and advance troops of XXX corps to cross the river are driven back, and so the evacuation of the surviving paratroopers begin two days later, leaving 2500 of their dead comrades behind.

Tennessee, Land War, 1863

The Battleof Blountsville. During Burnside’s moves into east Tennessee, Unions forces overcome the 1st Tennessee Cavalry Regiment at Blountsville.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 21

Politics, Yugoslavia,1944

The partisan chief Marshal Tito meets the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. They reach agreement on the “Temporary entry of the Red Army intoYugoslavia

Italy, Adriatic Sector, 1944

The Eighth Army takes Timmini after a week of heavy fighting. Since the beginning of the offensive against the Gothic Line, it has lost 14,000 men killed, wounded and missing plus 200 tanks. The Italian campaign has not lived up to being the “soft underbelly of Europe.” A more accurate description would be “touch old gut.”

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 20, 1863

Tennessee, Land War

TheBattleofChickamauga. Initial Rebel attacks begin four hours late due to poor staff work and make little headway against Thomas’ well-situated defensive line on theUnionleft. At11:00hours, Rosecrans pulls Thomas Wood’s divisions out of the right of his line to plug what he thinks is a gap farther north. Fortunately for the Confederates, three of their divisions under Longstreet launch an attack into the gap left by wood at precisely the same time. TheUnion’s defensive position is shattered. As Longstreet’s men come close to cutting his line of communication withChattanooga, Rosecrans orders a retreat.

Not all Union forces are through fighting. Troops under George H. Thomas make a stand on Snodgrass Hill, a wooded ridge on the northern end of the Union line. Thomas and his force succeed in holding Braggs at bat as Rosecrans and the bulk of the Union army withdraw intoChattanooga. For his efforts Thomas earns the Medal of Honor and is thereafter known as the “Rock of Chickamauga.” In stark contrast to Thomas, Rosecrans is inconsolable as he carried along intoChattanoogaby the wreckage of his army.

Chickamaugais a hollow victory for the Confederates: Bragg is unable to follow it up with the final defeat of the Army of theCumberland. At a cost of over 18,000 casualties, Bragg can only push Rosecrans back to Chattanooga- he is unable to destroy him or force the surrender of his army by a siege.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 19

Western Front, Holland, September 19-21, 1944

Forward elements of the British XXX corps reach US paratroopers at the Eindhoven, but at Arnhem all attempts to break through to the troops fail. On the 20th, the bridge at Nijmegen is captured by a combined force drawn from the US 82nd Airborne Divisions and the British XXX Corps. The next day, the British troops at Arnhem are overwhelmed. The remainder form a defensive perimeter on the northern bank of the Neder Rijn, around the village of Oosterbeck.

South Vietnam, South Korean Forces, 1966

The 2nd Battalion of the 2nd Brigade,Republic ofKorea Marine Corps, arrives at Chu Lai from Cam Ranh Bay, where they were stationed to Operate as a security force.

Civil War, 1863

Tennessee, Land War:  The Battle of Chickamauga. A single Union divisions initiates the battle this morning. It advances believing that is has trapped a small Confederate force west of Chickamauga Creek. The fighting is inconclusive, with both sides suffering heavy casualties. A late afternoon attack by John Bell Hood’s Confederates threaten to split the Union line, but reinforcements plug the gap at the last moment. Rosecrans plans to fight on the defensive tomorrow and has his men dig trenches for their protection.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 18, 1863

Tennessee, Land War.

TheBattleofChickamauga. General Rosecrans, commander of the Unions Army of theCumberland(62,000 men), orders George H. Thomas to position his corps north of Thomas L. Crittenden’s corps to prevent Confederate General Braxton Bragg and his 65,000 men from cutting off the Union army from Chattanooga, a key rail junction on the main Confederate east-west railroad. Not realizing that Thomas now forms the left flank of the Union army, Braggs crosses his forces over Chickamauga Creek and makes camp after some skirmishing with two Union cavalry brigades. The opposing battle lines are set, but due to the thickly wooden terrain along the creek, neither side is aware of it.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
September 17

Western Front, Holland, 1944

Operation Market Garden, General Bernard Montgomery’s plan for an armored and airborne thrust across Hollandto outflank the German defenses, begins. The British 1st Airborne Divisions lands near Arnhem the US 101st Airborne Divisions near Einghoven, the US 82nd Airborne Division near Grave and Nijmegen, while the British XXX Corps advances from the Dutch border. The 82nd lands without difficulty and takes the Maas and Maas-Waal Canal bridges, but then encounters heavy resistance as Nijmegen. The 101st Division also takes its bridges, but the British paratroopers discover their way to Arnhem is blocked by German units. Only one battalion, under Lieutenant Colonel John Frost, manages to reach the bridge, where it is quickly cut off.

The Third Reich, 1944

Western Front, Holland:  Operation Market Garden, Montgomery’s plan for an armored and airborne thrust through Holland, begins. General Eisenhower, supreme commander of the Allied forces, has taken over from Montgomery as commander of the Allied ground forces and decides to advance on a broad front towards the Rhine, notwithstanding Market Garden. Field Marshal von Rundstedt is given back command in the West. Allied forces now have a complete front from the Channel to Switzerland and move towards the German West Wall, the “Siegfried” line. France is almost totally liberated.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 15

Eastern Front, Poland, 1944

Units of the soviet-raised First Polish Army cross theVistulaRiverand seize bridgeheads isWarsaw.

Air War, Norway, 1944

Lancastersfrom 9 and 617 Squadrons of the RAF attackGermany’s only remaining battleship – the Tirpitz – in Altenfiord. However, little damage is done, chiefly due to the effectiveness of the German smokescreens.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 14- November 24, 1966

South Vietnam, Ground War

Operation Attleboroin War Zone C, TayNinhProvince, takes place over a 72-day period and is initiated by the 196th Light Infantry Brigade. There is no significant contact with the enemy until October 19 when a sizeable enemy base area is uncovered. By November, the 1st Infantry Division, and several ARVN battalions are involves.

A Major action takes place opn November 3, involving the US1st and 25th Infantry Divisions, 196th Light Infantry Brigade, 173rd Airborne Brigade and two South Vietnamese Battalions.

As it ends, US MACV reports that there are 1106 confirmed enemy casualties. This figure is the largest number of enemy casualties recorded to date as the result of aUSmilitary operation.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 13-18, 1966

South Vietnam, Ground War

The US Marines Conduct Deckhouse IV, an amphibious search and destroy operation in conjunction with the ongoing Prairie I Operation, 12.8km (8 miles) northeast of Dong Ha in I Corps Tactical Zone.

 

ON THIS DAY IN MILITARY HISTORY

September 11

South Vietnam, Politics, 1966

Of the 718,024 eligible voters in I Corps Tactical Zone 87.4 percent vote in South Vietnam’s Constituent Assembly election. Over 80 percent of those who register vote throughout polling places inSouth Vietnam.